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STREAMS Manual

Description: OpenSS7 Online Manuals

A PDF version of this document is available here.

Linux Fast-STREAMS

Linux Fast-STREAMS Installation and Reference Manual

About This Manual

This is Edition 4, last updated 2008-10-31, of The Linux Fast-STREAMS Installation and Reference Manual, for Version 0.9.2 release 4 of the Linux Fast-STREAMS package.

Preface

Notice

This package is released and distributed under the AGPL (see GNU Affero General Public License). Please note, however, that there are different licensing terms for the manual pages and some of the documentation (derived from OpenGroup1 publications and other sources). Consult the permission notices contained in the documentation for more information.

This manual is released under the FDL (see GNU Free Documentation License) with no sections invariant.

Abstract

This manual provides a Installation and Reference Manual for Linux Fast-STREAMS.

Objective

The objective of this manual is to provide a guide for the STREAMS programmer when developing STREAMS modules, drivers and application programs for Linux Fast-STREAMS.

This guide provides information to developers on the use of the STREAMS mechanism at user and kernel levels.

STREAMS was incorporated in UNIX System V Release 3 to augment the character input/output (I/O) mechanism and to support development of communication services.

STREAMS provides developers with integral functions, a set of utility routines, and facilities that expedite software design and implementation.

Intent

The intent of this manual is to act as an introductory guide to the STREAMS programmer. It is intended to be read alone and is not intended to replace or supplement the Linux Fast-STREAMS manual pages. For a reference for writing code, the manual pages (see STREAMS(9)) provide a better reference to the programmer. Although this describes the features of the Linux Fast-STREAMS package, OpenSS7 Corporation is under no obligation to provide any software, system or feature listed herein.

Audience

This manual is intended for a highly technical audience. The reader should already be familiar with Linux kernel programming, the Linux file system, character devices, driver input and output, interrupts, software interrupt handling, scheduling, process contexts, multiprocessor locks, etc.

The guide is intended for network and systems programmers, who use the STREAMS mechanism at user and kernel levels for Linux and UNIX system communication services.

Readers of the guide are expected to possess prior knowledge of the Linux and UNIX system, programming, networking, and data communication.

Revisions

Take care that you are working with a current version of this manual: you will not be notified of updates. To ensure that you are working with a current version, contact the Author, or check The OpenSS7 Project website for a current version.

A current version of this manual is normally distributed with the Linux Fast-STREAMS package.

Version Control

     STREAMS.texi,v
     Revision 0.9.2.45  2008-09-20 11:04:35  brian
     - added package patchlevel
     
     Revision 0.9.2.44  2008-08-03 06:03:36  brian
     - protected agains texinfo commands in log entries
     
     Revision 0.9.2.43  2008/07/27 08:49:17  brian
     - no invariant sections, more libtool ignores
     
     Revision 0.9.2.42  2008-04-28 12:54:00  brian
     - update file headers for release
     
     Revision 0.9.2.41  2008-04-25 11:50:49  brian
     - updates to AGPLv3
     
     Revision 0.9.2.40  2007/12/15 20:19:44  brian
     - updates
     
     Revision 0.9.2.39  2007/11/06 10:27:04  brian
     - miscellaneous corrections
     
     Revision 0.9.2.38  2007/08/12 06:44:32  brian
     - updated licenses in manuals
     
     Revision 0.9.2.37  2007/03/17 08:31:56  brian
     - corrected formatting problems
     
     Revision 0.9.2.36  2007/02/28 06:30:55  brian
     - updates and corrections, #ifdef instead of #if
     
     Revision 0.9.2.35  2007/01/02 16:32:03  brian
     - updates for release, disable streams-bcm by default
     
     Revision 0.9.2.34  2006/12/31 13:26:37  brian
     - documentation updates for release
     
     Revision 0.9.2.33  2006/09/18 01:06:57  brian
     - updated manuals and release texi docs
     
     Revision 0.9.2.32  2006/08/28 10:47:05  brian
     - correction
     
     Revision 0.9.2.31  2006/08/28 10:32:54  brian
     - updated references
     
     Revision 0.9.2.30  2006/08/27 12:26:58  brian
     - finalizing auto release files
     
     Revision 0.9.2.29  2006/08/26 18:31:44  brian
     - handle long urls
     
     Revision 0.9.2.28  2006/08/26 09:18:27  brian
     - better release file generation
     
     Revision 0.9.2.27  2006/08/23 11:00:41  brian
     - added preface, corrections and updates for release
     
     Revision 0.9.2.26  2006/08/22 12:36:49  brian
     - udpates to documentation, tweaks to Stream head
     
     Revision 0.9.2.25  2006/03/22 10:02:04  brian
     - added makefile target index
     
     Revision 0.9.2.24  2006/03/03 10:57:11  brian
     - 32-bit compatibility support, updates for release
     
     Revision 0.9.2.23  2005/09/15 13:03:08  brian
     - added new graphics and updates
     
     Revision 0.9.2.22  2005/07/08 13:16:11  brian
     - updates to documentation
     
     Revision 0.9.2.21  2005/06/24 13:38:59  brian
     - added troubleshooting section to manuals
     
     Revision 0.9.2.20  2005/05/14 08:34:34  brian
     - copyright header correction
     
     Revision 0.9.2.19  2005/04/15 00:58:31  brian
     - working up documentation
     
     Revision 0.9.2.18  2005/04/14 08:06:09  brian
     - added figures
     
     Revision 0.9.2.17  2005/04/12 09:28:59  brian
     - corrections
     
     Revision 0.9.2.16  2005/04/11 20:48:41  brian
     - documentation updates and corrections
     
     Revision 0.9.2.15  2005/03/15 12:06:58  brian
     - Updated texinfo documentation.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.14  2005/03/15 00:56:42  brian
     - Updated version numbering in texinfo files.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.13  2005/03/15 00:51:34  brian
     - Updated version numbering in texinfo files.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.12  2005/02/17 22:57:34  brian
     - Some cross-reference corrections.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.11  2005/02/17 11:34:53  brian
     - Corrected some more texi problems.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.10  2005/01/24 11:57:57  brian
     - Updated texinfo headers.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.9  2004/12/19 15:15:02  brian
     - Corrected include position.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.8  2004/12/17 04:02:46  brian
     - Improving spec files.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.7  2004/11/06 10:24:35  brian
     - Updated documentation.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.6  2004/08/22 07:28:53  brian
     - Converted to shared common files.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.5  2004/08/22 06:17:50  brian
     - Checkin on new working branch.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.4  2004/08/15 19:59:29  brian
     - Build system updates.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.3  2004/05/29 08:28:01  brian
     - Working up stable release.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.2  2004/03/15 07:59:39  brian
     - Working up manual pages.
     
     Revision 0.9.2.1  2004/03/13 05:46:34  brian
     - Working up more documentation.

ISO 9000 Compliance

Only the TeX, texinfo, or roff source for this manual is controlled. An opaque (printed, postscript or portable document format) version of this manual is an UNCONTROLLED VERSION.

Disclaimer

OpenSS7 Corporation disclaims all warranties with regard to this documentation including all implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, or title; that the contents of the manual are suitable for any purpose, or that the implementation of such contents will not infringe on any third party patents, copyrights, trademarks or other rights. In no event shall OpenSS7 Corporation be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with any use of this manual or the performance or implementation of the contents thereof.

OpenSS7 Corporation reserves the right to revise this software and documentation for any reason, including but not limited to, conformity with standards promulgated by various agencies, utilization of advances in the state of the technical arts, or the reflection of changes in the design of any techniques, or procedures embodied, described, or referred to herein. OpenSS7 Corporation is under no obligation to provide any feature listed herein.

U.S. Government Restricted Rights

If you are licensing this Software on behalf of the U.S. Government ("Government"), the following provisions apply to you. If the Software is supplied by the Department of Defense ("DoD"), it is classified as "Commercial Computer Software" under paragraph 252.227-7014 of the DoD Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulations ("DFARS") (or any successor regulations) and the Government is acquiring only the license rights granted herein (the license rights customarily provided to non-Government users). If the Software is supplied to any unit or agency of the Government other than DoD, it is classified as "Restricted Computer Software" and the Government's rights in the Software are defined in paragraph 52.227-19 of the Federal Acquisition Regulations ("FAR") (or any successor regulations) or, in the cases of NASA, in paragraph 18.52.227-86 of the NASA Supplement to the FAR (or any successor regulations).

Acknowledgements

As with most open source projects, this project would not have been possible without the valiant efforts and productive software of the Free Software Foundation and the Linux Kernel Community.

Sponsors

Funding for completion of the OpenSS7 Linux Fast-STREAMS package was provided in part by:

OpenSS7 Corporation

Additional funding for The OpenSS7 Project was provided by:

OpenSS7 Corporation
Lockheed Martin Co.
Motorola
HOB International
Comverse Ltd.
Sonus Networks Inc.
France Telecom
SS8 Networks Inc.
Nortel Networks
Verisign
eServGlobal (NZ) Pty Ltd.
NetCentrex S. A.
SysMaster Corporation
GeoLink SA
AirNet Communications
TECORE
Tumsan Oy
Vodare Ltd.
Excel Telecommunications

Contributors

The primary contributor to the OpenSS7 Linux Fast-STREAMS package is Brian F. G. Bidulock. The following is a list of significant contributors to The OpenSS7 Project:

− Per Berquist
− John Boyd
− Chuck Winters
− Peter Courtney
− Tom Chandler
− Gurol Ackman
− Kutluk Testicioglu
− John Wenker
− Others

Authors

The authors of the OpenSS7 Linux Fast-STREAMS package include:

Brian Bidulock

See Author Index, for a complete listing and cross-index of authors to sections of this manual.

Maintainer

The maintainer of the OpenSS7 Linux Fast-STREAMS package is:

Brian Bidulock

Please send bug reports to bugs@openss7.org using the send-pr script included in the package, only after reading the BUGS file in the release, or See Problem Reports.

Web Resources

The OpenSS7 Project provides a website dedicated to the software packages released by the OpenSS7 Project.

Bug Reports

Please send bug reports to bugs@openss7.org using the send-pr script included in the Linux Fast-STREAMS package, only after reading the BUGS file in the release, or See Problem Reports. You can access the OpenSS7 GNATS database directly via the web, however, the preferred method for sending new bug reports is via mail with the send-pr script.

Mailing Lists

The OpenSS7 Project provides a number of general discussion Mailing Lists for discussion concerning the OpenSS7 Linux Fast-STREAMS package as well as other packages released by The OpenSS7 Project.

These are mailman mailing lists and so have convenient web interfaces for subscribers to control their settings. See http://www.openss7.org/mailinglist.html.

The mailing lists are as follows:

openss7
The openss7 mailing list is for general enquiries, information exchange and announcements regarding the OpenSS7 Project. This is our original mailing list and takes the highest amount of traffic.
openss7-announce
The openss7-announce mailing list is for announcements related to the OpenSS7 Project. This list will accept announcements posted by subscribers. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in announcements from the OpenSS7 Project, subscribers and sponsors, related to the OpenSS7 Project or STREAMS, SS7, SIGTRAN or SCTP in general.
openss7-cvs
The openss7-cvs mailing list is for automatic CVS log reporting. You must get permission of the owner to subscribe to this list. Subscribers are not allowed to post to this list, this is merely for distributing notification of changes to the CVS repository.h
openss7-develop
The openss7-develop mailing list is for email exchange related to the development projects under the OpenSS7 Project. This includes development requests, proposals, requests for comment or proposal. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in ongoing development details regarding the OpenSS7 Project.
openss7-test
The openss7-test mailing list is for email exchange related to the testing of code under the OpenSS7 Project. This specifically relates to conformance testing, verification testing, interoperability testing and beta testing. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in participating in and receiving ongoing details of test activities under the OpenSS7 Project.
openss7-bugs
The openss7-bugs mailing list is specifically tailored to bug tracking. The mailing list takes a feed from the OpenSS7 GNATS bug tracking system and accepts posting of responses to bug reports, tracking and resolution. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in receiving detailed OpenSS7 release code bug tracking information. This list is not archived; for historical information on problem reports, see our GNATS databases.
openss7-updates
The openss7-updates mailing list provides updates on OpenSS7 Project code releases and ongoing activities. Subscribers are not allowed to post to this list; this list is for official OpenSS7 Project announcements only. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in receiving updates concerning official releases and activities of the OpenSS7 Project.
openss7-streams
The openss7-streams mailing list is for email exchange related to the STREAMS development projects under the OpenSS7 Project. This includes development requests, proposals, requests for comment or proposal. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in ongoing development details regarding the OpenSS7 Project STREAMS components.
linux-streams
The linux-streams mailing list is for mail exchange related to Linux Fast-STREAMS or Linux STREAMS. This includes patches, development requests, proposals, requests for comment or proposal. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in ongoing development details regarding the STREAMS for Linux components. This is the the new (September 2006) home of the linux-streams list formerly of <gsyc.escet.urjc.es>.
Spam

To avoid spam being sent to the members of the OpenSS7 mailing list(s), we have blocked mail from non-subscribers. Please subscribe to the mailing list before attempting to post to them. (Attempts to post when not subscribed get bounced.)

As an additional measure against spam, subscriber lists for all OpenSS7 mailing lists are not accessible to non-subscribers; for most lists subscriber lists are only accessible to the list administrator. This keeps your mailing address from being picked off our website by bulk mailers.

Acceptable Use Policy

It is acceptable to post professional and courteous messages regarding the OpenSS7 package or any general information or questions concerning STREAMS, SS7, SIGTRAN, SCTP or telecommunications applications in general.

Large Attachments

The mailing list is blocked from messages of greater than 40k. If you have attachments (patches, test programs, etc.) and you mail them to the list, it will bounce to the list administrator. If you are interested in making your patches, test programs, test results or other large attachments available to the members of the mailing list, state in the message that you would like them posted and the list administrator will place them in the mail archives.

Quick Start Guide

Linux Fast-STREAMS

Package streams-0.9.2.4 was released under AGPLv3 2008-10-31.

The OpenSS7 Linux Fast-STREAMS package is a High-Performance STREAMS framework for Linux that is compatible with SVR 4.2 MP STREAMS and a host of other commercial UNIX® STREAMS implementations, with complete debugging and production release capabilities. It is as a high-performance, production replacement for the buggy and now deprecated Linux STREAMS (LiS).

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package includes kernel modules, SVR 4.2 STREAMS drivers, modules, libraries, utilities, test programs, daemons, and development environment for the development and execution of STREAMS modules and drivers under Linux Fast-STREAMS. It is completely documented with over four hundred (435) manual pages, and three (3) major print set manuals.

The package configures, compiles, installs and builds rpms or debs for a wide range of Linux rpm(1)- or dpkg(1)-based distributions, and can be used on production kernels without patching, recompiling or tainting the kernel. Its small run-time footprint makes the release suitable for embedded targets.

This distribution is only currently applicable to Linux 2.4 and 2.6 kernels and was targeted at ix86, x86_64, ppc and ppc64 architectures, but should build and install for other architectures as well.

Release

This is the streams-0.9.2.4 package, released 2008-10-31. This ‘0.9.2.4’ release, and the latest version, can be obtained from the download area of The OpenSS7 Project website using a command such as:

     $> wget http://www.openss7.org/tarballs/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

The release is available as an autoconf(1) tarball, src.rpm or dsc, as a set of binary rpms or debs, or as a yum(8) or apt(8) repository. See the download page for the autoconf(1) tarballs, src.rpms, dscs, or repository access instructions. See the streams package page for tarballs, source and binary packages.

Please see the NEWS file for release notes and history of user visible changes for the current version, and the ChangeLog file for a more detailed history of implementation changes. The TODO file lists features not yet implemented and other outstanding items.

Please see the INSTALL, INSTALL-streams and README-make, files (or see Installation) for installation instructions.

When working from cvs(1) or git(1), please see the README-cvs, file (or see Downloading from CVS). An abbreviated installation procedure that works for most applications appears below.

This release of the package is published strictly under Version 3 of the GNU Affero Public License which can be found in the file COPYING. Package specific licensing terms (if any) can be found in the file LICENSES. Please respect these licensing arrangements. If you are interested in different licensing terms, please contact the copyright holder, or OpenSS7 Corporation <sales@openss7.com>.

See README-alpha (if it exists) for alpha release information.

Prerequisites

The quickest and easiest way to ensure that all prerequisites are met is to download and install this package from within the OpenSS7 Master Package, openss7-0.9.2.G, instead of separately.

Prerequisites for the Linux Fast-STREAMS package are as follows:

  1. Linux distribution, somewhat Linux Standards Base compliant, with a 2.4 or 2.6 kernel and the appropriate tool chain for compiling out-of-tree kernel modules. Most recent Linux distributions are usable out of the box, but some development packages must be installed. For more information, see Compatibility.

    − A fairly LSB compliant GNU/Linux distribution.2
    − Linux 2.4 kernel (2.4.10 - 2.4.27), or
    − Linux 2.6 kernel (2.6.3 - 2.6.26);
    − glibc2 or better.
    − GNU groff (for man pages).3
    − GNU texinfo (for info files).
    − GNU bison and flex (for config programs).
    − net-snmp (for SNMP agents).4

When configuring and building multiple OpenSS7 Project release packages, place all of the source packages (unpacked tarballs) at the same directory level and all build directories at the same directory level (e.g. all source packages under /usr/src).

When installing packages that install as kernel modules, it is necessary to have the correct kernel development package installed. For the following distributions, use the following commands:

     Ubuntu:  $> apt-get install linux-headers
     Debian:  $> apt-get install kernel-headers
     Fedora:  $> yum install kernel-devel

You also need the same version of gcc(1) compiler with which the kernel was built. If it is not the default, add ‘CC=kgcc’ on the line after ‘./configure’, for example:

     $> ../streams-0.9.2.4/configure CC='gcc-3.4'

Installation

The following commands will download, configure, build, check, install, validate, uninstall and remove the package:

     $> wget http://www.openss7.org/tarballs/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     $> tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     $> mkdir build
     $> pushd build
     $> ../streams-0.9.2.4/configure --enable-autotest
     $> make
     $> make check
     $> sudo make install
     $> sudo make installcheck
     $> sudo make uninstall
     $> popd
     $> sudo rm -rf build
     $> rm -rf streams-0.9.2.4
     $> rm -f streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

If you have problems, try building with the logging targets instead. If the make of a logging target fails, an automatic problem report will be generated that can be mailed to The OpenSS7 Project.5 Installation steps using the logging targets proceed as follows:

     $> wget http://www.openss7.org/tarballs/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     $> tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     $> mkdir build
     $> pushd build
     $> ../streams-0.9.2.4/configure --enable-autotest
     $> make compile.log
     $> make check.log
     $> sudo make install.log
     $> sudo make installcheck.log
     $> sudo make uninstall.log
     $> popd
     $> sudo rm -rf build
     $> rm -rf streams-0.9.2.4
     $> rm -f streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

See README-make for additional specialized make targets.

For custom applications, see the INSTALL and INSTALL-streams files or the see Installation, as listed below. If you encounter troubles, see Troubleshooting, before issuing a bug report.

Brief Installation Instructions

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package is available from the downloads area of The OpenSS7 Project website using a command such as:

     $> wget http://www.openss7.org/tarballs/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

Unpack the tarball using a command such as:

     $> tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

The tarball will unpack into the relative subdirectory named after the package name: streams-0.9.2.4.

The package builds using the GNU autoconf utilities and the configure script. To build the package, we recommend using a separate build directory as follows:

     $> mkdir build
     $> cd build
     $> ../streams-0.9.2.4/configure

In general, the package configures and builds without adding any special options to the configure script. For general options to the configure script, see the GNU INSTALL file in the distribution:

     $> less ../streams-0.9.2.4/INSTALL

For specific options to the configure script, see the INSTALL-streams file in the distribution, or simply execute the configure script with the --help option like so:

     $> ../streams-0.9.2.4/configure --help

After configuring the package, the package can be compiled simply by issuing the ‘make’ command:

     $> make

Some specialized makefile targets exists, see the README-make file in the distribution or simply invoke the ‘help’ target like so:

     $> make help | less

After successfully building the package, the package can be checked by invoking the ‘check’ make target like so:

     $> make check

After successfully checking the package, the package can be installed by invoking the ‘install’ make target (as root) like so:

     $> sudo make install

The test suites that ship with the package can be invoked after the package has been installed by invoking the ‘installcheck’ target. This target can either be invoked as root, or as a normal user, like so:

     $> make installcheck

(Note: you must add the --enable-autotest flag to configure, above for the test suites to be invoked with ‘make installcheck’.)

The package can be cleanly removed by invoking the ‘uninstall’ target (as root):

     $> sudo make uninstall

Then the build directory and tarball can be simply removed:

     $> cd ..
     $> rm -rf build
     $> rm -rf streams-0.9.2.4
     $> rm -f streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

Detailed Installation Instructions

More detailed installation instructions can be found in the Installation, contained in the distribution in ‘text’, ‘info’, ‘html’ and ‘pdf’ formats:

     $> cd ../streams-0.9.2.4
     $> less doc/manual/streams.txt
     $> lynx doc/manual/streams.html
     $> info doc/manual/streams.info
     $> xpdf doc/manual/streams.pdf

The ‘text’ version of the manual is always available in the MANUAL file in the release.

The current manual is also always available online from The OpenSS7 Project website at:

     $> lynx http://www.openss7.org/streams_manual.html

1 Introduction

This manual documents the design, implementation, installation, operation and future development schedule of the Linux Fast-STREAMS package.

1.1 Overview

This manual documents the design, implementation, installation, operation and future development of the Linux Fast-STREAMS package.

1.2 Organization of this Manual

This manual is organized (loosely) into several sections as follows:

Introduction. This introduction
Objective. Objective of the package
Reference. Contents of the package
Development. Developing with the package
Porting. Porting to the package
Conformance. Conformance of the package
Releases. Releases of the package
Installation. Installation of the package
Troubleshooting. Troubleshooting of the package

1.3 Conventions and Definitions

This manual uses texinfo typographic conventions.

2 Objective

2.1 Background

STREAMS derives from Dennis Ritchie's original paper,6 was incorporated into the UNIX® System V Release 3 operating system, replaced the terminal input-output subsystem, pipes and FIFOs in UNIX® System V Release 4, and was improved in the USL release of the UNIX® System V Release 4.2 operating system.

Today, STREAMS is a part of every major branded UNIX® variant, such as AIX®, HP-UX®, IRIX®, MacOT®, OSF/1®, Solaris®, SUPER-UX®, UnixWare®, UXP/V®, and including many UNIX-like operating systems and popular embedded RTOS, but with the notable exception of Berkeley System Distribution releases, variants and offshoots, and Linux.

2.2 What is STREAMS?

STREAMS is a flexible framework for communication between a user level process and a kernel resident driver. It encompasses a set of kernel system calls providing a user-kernel interface that is backward compatible with the traditional character device driver interface, as well as a set of STREAMS driver and module entry points forming a driver-kernel interface. STREAMS also provides a rich set of kernel utility functions for the development and implementation of kernel-resident drivers and modules. STREAMS prompted the specification of the DDI/DKI which is an architecture independent driver-kernel interface that provides a standardized set of kernel functions (beyond just STREAMS) for the development of device and software drivers.

STREAMS provides a reconfigurable full-duplex communications path between user level process and kernel resident driver, termed a Stream. Modules can be inserted in the path between the user and driver under user level control. Streams can be linked across multiplexers under user control to form complex (yet reconfigurable) topologies of user level processes and drivers.

Communication of control and data information along a Stream is accomplished by message passing. There is no direct function call interface between components of a Stream. A Stream exists within the STREAMS framework inside the kernel and extend from the user-kernel interface to the kernel driver interface. Each component of a Stream consists of a pair of queues used to pass messages in the upstream direction to the kernel-user interface; or downstream, the kernel-driver interface.

At the kernel-user end of the Stream is a component called the Stream head. As with all components of a Stream, the Stream head consists of a queue pair and a specialized set of procedures. The Stream head procedures are responsible for converting between the system call interface presented to users and the message passing mechanism within the Stream.

At the kernel-driver end of the Stream is the Stream end. The Stream end also contains a queue pair and a set of procedures. The Stream end (or simply driver) procedures are responsible for converting between the message passing mechanism within the Stream and the actions and events of a hardware (or pseudo-) device.

Intermediate components within the Stream are called Modules. Modules consist of a queue pair for passing messages upstream and downstream, as well as a set of procedures for processing messages. Modules can be pushed onto the module stack between the Stream head and Stream end using a set of standardized input-output control commands.

In support of topologies more complex than these simple linear segments, STREAMS also provides a specialized Stream end (driver) called a Multiplexing driver. A Multiplexing driver has the ability to open multiple Streams to its upper interface (multiplexer) as well as linking multiple Streams beneath its lower interface (multiplexer). Again, a standardized set of input-output controls provide the user with the ability to configure a Multiplexing driver.

2.3 Why STREAMS?

With the ability to open multiple Streams to a driver, push and pop modules to and from the module stack on a Stream, and to link any Stream under a multiplexing driver–all under user control using standardized input-output controls–allows STREAMS to configure complex topologies to form protocol stacks.

Almost all specialized standard telecommunications software developed since 1990 was developed to run on STREAMS. This is for several reasons:

  • Since 1990, STREAMS and the associated DDI/DKI has been, and remains, the only way to incorporate OEM protocol stacks into mainstream UNIX® system kernels.
  • The original UNIX System Laboratories (later X/Open then later the OpenGroup) support for ITU-T developed OSI protocols, makes STREAMS amenable to an open model for development for ITU-T protocols. (ITU-T, formerly CCITT, is the International Telecommunications Union – Telephone Sector responsible for international telephone standards, and original developers of the OSI model.)

As a result, there is a significant body of commercial software implementing telecommunications protocol stacks that was developed, tested, validated, conformance tested, field verified, to run on STREAMS: and is still running on STREAMS.

The cost of reimplementation, retesting, revalidation, redoing conformance testing, and field re-verification, would likely be prohibitive: after all, the point of Linux is reducing cost, is it not?

2.4 Why STREAMS for Linux?

The Linux kernel was not developed with STREAMS in mind. For TPI/IP networking, Linux originally followed in the footsteps of the BSD NET2 release. Currently, the implementation of TCP/IP in the Linux kernel has long departed from the classical BSD organization and exhibits characteristics unique to the GNU/Linux operating system. For character device and terminal input-output, Linux follows closely the SVR 3 pre-STREAMS approach to pipes, FIFOs and terminal subsystem. The terminal subsystem implementation, too, has become unique to GNU/Linux.

Therefore, from the perspective of TCP/IP networking and Terminal I/O, there would be little reason to provide STREAMS for Linux. That is, if it were not for the body of software supporting OSI and telecommunications protocols based solely on STREAMS, for which Linux has little or no support.

So, the answer to the question, "Why STREAMS for Linux?" is: so that a GNU/Linux platform can enjoy the same wealth of telecommunications and OSI protocol stacks otherwise only available to big-iron UNIX®. Without STREAMS, Linux is probably just another BSD, and probably not a very good one.

2.5 History of STREAMS for Linux

In the mid-90's, GCOM Inc. embarked on development on an open source implementation of STREAMS called Linux STREAMS (LiS), likely driven by its use for porting existing OSI protocol stacks to Linux. In 2000, The OpenSS7 Project abandoned using the Linux networking model for implementation of the Signalling System No. 7 protocol (primarily due to the lack of support for the full BSD networking model under Linux) and switched to using STREAMS as the basis for all future development. The GCOM LiS release (2.2 at the time) was used as the STREAMS package. Over the span of the next 5 years, (and not surprisingly given the body of software), almost all Signalling System No. 7 products released on Linux used LiS for STREAMS. In 2005, Dave Grothe (the G in GCOM) announced that he would no longer be maintaining or developing LiS subsequent to the 2.18.0 release, stranding many users of the package.

Later in 2005, after briefly maintaining two GPL'ed releases of LiS, (2.18.1 and 2.18.2), The OpenSS7 Project release (after two years of development) the streams-0.7a.4 package: a reimplementation of SVR 4.2 STREAMS with compatibility modules for all major UNIX® releases, called Linux Fast-STREAMS. Linux Fast-STREAMS was intended as a POSIX/SUSv3 XSR conforming, high performance, production grade, replacement for LiS, suitable for mainline Linux adoption, and a better foundation on which to base SIGTRAN, VoIP, ISDN and SS7 protocol stacks developed under the The OpenSS7 Project, as well as a better foundation for porting commercial UNIX® OEM implementations to Linux. It is the streams-0.9.2.4 package that contains the documentation you are reading now.

2.6 Why Fast?

After working with LiS releases for over 3 years, in late 2003, The OpenSS7 Project decided to begin implementation of a replacement for LiS, because of a number of shortcomings of the LiS releases:

  1. unsuitable for mainline kernel adoption due to coding style and organization;
  2. poorly adapted to distribution production kernels;
  3. is unsuitable for packaging and repeatability;
  4. portability objective unsuitable for mainline kernel adoption;
  5. ports form the same baseline obfuscate the code;
  6. performs poorly due to portability and coding style;
  7. code bloat and over sized memory footprint;
  8. redundant debug statements obscuring defects and obfuscating code;
  9. overuse of semaphores;
  10. contains serious races and not suitable for threaded applications;
  11. does not conform to mainstream UNIX® implementations;
  12. does not conform to POSIX or any release of the Single UNIX Specification;
  13. limited set of standard drivers and modules;
  14. limited set of diagnostic and administrative utilities;
  15. limited test programs;
  16. poorly documented.

The replacement, named Linux Fast-STREAMS, was to correct all of these difficulties, and, by the initial ‘streams-0.7a.4’ release, was:

  1. completely Lindented and follows kernel coding practises;
  2. automatically adapts to production kernels with autoconf;
  3. packages itself into LSB compliant RPMs and DEBs;
  4. designed and implemented specifically for GNU/Linux;
  5. no ports considered;
  6. over twice the performance;
  7. less than one-eighth of the memory footprint;
  8. proper programming by assertion;
  9. proper use of lightweight spin locks;
  10. race free locking strategies and synchronization;
  11. compatible with all mainstream UNIX® implementations;
  12. conforms to POSIX/SUSv3 XSR;
  13. complete set of standard drivers and modules;
  14. complete set of diagnostic and administrative utilities;
  15. integrated set of conformance test suites;
  16. fully documented.

Many specific difficulties encountered with LiS not repeated by Linux Fast-STREAMS are contained in the COMPATIBILITY section of most of the manual pages.

3 Reference

3.1 Files

The following kernel modules are installed by Linux Fast-STREAMS in the /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/streams/directory, with either a ‘.o’ or ‘.ko’ extension. 7

specfs
This kernel module contains the STREAMS Special Shadow Filesystem. See specfs(5) for more information.
streams
This kernel module contains the STREAMS scheduler, utility functions, and STREAMS Device Driver Interface/Driver Kernel Interface (DDI/DKI). See STREAMS(9) for more information.
streams-fifo
This kernel module contains the fifo STREAMS driver. This is a standard STREAMS driver, but is also used by the conformance and validation test suite. See fifo(4) for more information.
streams-sad
This kernel module contains the sad STREAMS driver. This is the standard STREAMS Administrative Driver. See sad(4) for more information.
streams-nsdev
This kernel module contains the nsdev STREAMS driver. This is a Linux Fast-STREAMS specific driver. See nsdev(4) for more information.
streams-echo
This kernel module contains the echo STREAMS driver. This is a standard STREAMS driver, but is also used by the conformance and validation test suite. See echo(4) for more information.
streams-mux
This kernel module contains the mux STREAMS driver. This is a standard STREAMS driver< but is also used by the conformance and validation test suite. See mux(4) for more information.
streams-nuls
This kernel module contains the nuls STREAMS driver. This is a standard STREAMS module. See nuls(4) for more information.
streams-pipe
This kernel module contains the pipe STREAMS driver. This is a standard STREAMS driver. See pipe(4) for more information.
streams-log
This kernel module contains the log STREAMS driver. This is a standard STREAMS driver. See log(4) for more information.
streams-loop
This kernel module contains the loop STREAMS driver. This is a standard STREAMS driver, but is also used by the conformance and validation test suite. See loop(4) for more information.
streams-sfx
This kernel module contains the sfx STREAMS driver. This is a common character device driver for implementing STREAMS FIFOs. See sfx(4) for more information.
streams-spx
This kernel module contains the spx STREAMS driver. This is a common character device driver for implementing STREAMS pipes. See spx(4) for more information.
streams-bufmod
This kernel module contains the bufmod STREAMS module. The bufmod STREAMS module is a simple buffer module (a module that always defers to its service procedure and then passes any message along). This module is used for performance testing of the STREAMS package. See bufmod(4) for more information.
streams-nullmod
This kernel module contains the nullmod STREAMS module. The nullmod STREAMS module is a simple null module (a module that always passes messages to the next module in along the Stream). This module is used for performance testing of the STREAMS package and is also used by the conformance and validation test suite. See nullmod(4) for more information.
streams-pipemod
This kernel module contains the pipemod STREAMS module. This is a standard STREAMS module used with pipes. See pipemod(4) for more information.
streams-connld
This kernel module contains the connld STREAMS module. This is a standard STREAMS module. See connld(4) for more information.
streams-sc
This kernel module contains the sc STREAMS module. This is a common STREAMS Configuration module. See sc(4) for more information.
streams-testmod
This kernel module contains the testmod STREAMS module. This is a Linux Fast-STREAMS specific test module that is used for conformance and validation testing of STREAMS. See testmod(4) for more information.

Additional kernel modules are provided by add-on packages.

3.2 Drivers

The configuration of STREAMS drivers and modules is performed when compiling the Linux Fast-STREAMS subsystem. The STREAMS subsystem, core drivers and modules are part of every Linux Fast-STREAMS system.

The following lists the core drivers and modules, STREAMS kernel tunable parameters, and STREAMS configuration information:8

clone(4) (streams)
Clone device driver. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS driver. The clone(4) driver is a integral part of STREAMS and is used to create clone instances of a STREAMS driver.

See clone(4) for more information.

echo(4) (streams-echo)
Echo (loopback) device driver. This is a commonly implemented STREAMS driver. It is implemented by HP-UX® and OSF/1®. The echo(4) driver provides a simple FIFO-like device without full POSIX FIFO semantics. Its primary purpose is for the STREAMS Verification function, strvf(8), and the test-streams(8) validation test suite.

See echo(4) for more information.

fifo(4) (streams-fifo)
FIFO (Named Pipe) device driver. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS driver. The fifo(4) driver provides POSIX-compliant STREAMS-based FIFO device. Not all implementations of STREAMS provide STREAMS-based FIFOs: some implementations use the older SVR 3-style FIFOs that are not STREAMS-based. Linux Fast-STREAMS provides STREAMS-based FIFOs with the fifo(4) driver.

See fifo(4) for more information.

log(4) (streams-log)
STREAMS log driver. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS driver. The log(4) driver provides a STREAMS capable logger in addition to the BSD logger present in Linux. The log(4) driver provides additional support for STREAMS modules and drivers using the strlog(9) kernel level utility. Linux Fast-STREAMS also provides the strace(8), strerr(8) and strclean(8) administrative utility functions and startup scripts for controlling the log(4) driver.

See log(4) for more information.

loop(4) (streams-loop)
Loop device driver. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS driver. The loop driver is detailed in the UNIX System V Release 4 Programmer's Manual – STREAMS. The loop(4) driver provides capabilities used primarily for validation test programs (see test-streams(8)) as well as serving as an example driver.

See loop(4) for more information.

mux(4) (streams-mux)
Multiplexing driver. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS driver. The mux driver is detailed in the UNIX System V Release 4 Programmer's Manual – STREAMS. The mux(4) driver provides capabilities used primarily for validation test programs (see test-streams(8) as well as serving as an example multiplexing driver. This mux(4) driver also provides the minimux capabilities formerly present in LiS.

See mux(4) for more information.

nsdev(4) (streams-nsdev)
Named STREAMS device driver. This is a Linux Fast-STREAMS specific driver. The nsdev(4) driver is a clone(4)-like driver that permits the specification of major and minor device numbers using the device node name. It provides one of three mechanisms under Linux Fast-STREAMS that remove STREAMS driver dependency on statically allocated device numbers.

See nsdev(4) for more information.

nuls(4) (streams-nuls)
Null Stream driver. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS driver. The nuls(4) driver is usually called ‘null’. Linux has its own SVR3-style /dev/null driver, so it was renamed to ‘nuls’.

See nuls(4) for more information.

pipe(4) (streams-pipe)
STREAMS-based pipe driver. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS driver. However, pipe(4) is not normally implemented as a STREAMS driver, but is implemented as a system call. Linux Fast-STREAMS provides pipe(2s) system call emulation which invokes this driver internal to the kernel.

See pipe(4) for more information.

sad(4) (streams-sad)
STREAMS Administrative Driver. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS driver. The sad(4) driver is used by the autopush(8) utility to examine and specify the autopush lists for STREAMS drivers. Also, it is used to examine and verify the present of STREAMS modules or drivers in the system.

See sad(4) for more information.

sfx(4) (streams-sfx)
STREAMS FIFO device driver. This is commonly implemented STREAMS driver that is used to implement STREAMS FIFOs (Named Pipes) using a regular character device. The sfx(4) driver provides a character based device approach to creating FIFOs.

See sfx(4) for more information.

spx(4) (streams-spx)
STREAMS pipe device driver. This is commonly implemented STREAMS driver that is used to implement STREAMS pipes using a regular character device. The spx(4) driver provides a character based device approach to creating FIFOs and pipes. Only UnixWare® and AIX(4) document this device.

See spx(4) for more information.

Additional drivers are provided by add-on packages.

3.3 Modules

The configuration of STREAMS drivers and modules is performed when compiling the Linux Fast-STREAMS subsystem. The STREAMS subsystem, core drivers and modules are part of every Linux Fast-STREAMS system.

The following lists the core drivers and modules, STREAMS kernel tunable parameters, and STREAMS configuration information:9

pipemod(4) (streams-pipemod)
Pipe module. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS module. The pipemod(4) module can be pushed over a pipe end or FIFO before other modules are pushed (on either end) to reverse the sense of the M_FLUSH(9) message that traverse the pipe.

See pipemod(4) for more information.

connld(4) (streams-connld)
Connection Line Discipline module. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS module. The connld(4) module can be pushed over a pipe end that has been attached to a file system file using fattach(3) and will then create a new pipe instance on each open(2s) of the attached file and pass the new remove file pointer to the remove end using M_PASSFP(9) to be received with I_RECVFD(7). This allows servers to be created that use pipe(4)s for communication.

See connld(4) for more information.

sc(4) (streams-sc)
STREAMS Configuration module. This is a commonly implemented STREAMS module. It is implemented by HP-UX and AIX, and perhaps other Mentat-derived STREAMS implementations. The sc(4) modules provides the ability to access STREAMS driver information by name rather than major device number. It also provides access to the module_info(9) and module_stat(9) structure information for the named STREAMS module or driver, not accessible using the sad(4) driver. The sc(4) module is used by the scls(8) utility.

See sc(4) for more information.

bufmod(4) (streams-bufmod)
Buffer module. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS module described in the UNIX System V Release 4 Programmer's Manual – STREAMS. The bufmod(4) module also has Linux Fast-STREAMS specific extensions. The bufmod(4) module is used by the perftest(8) performance test program to test the effect of additional levels of service procedure pushed over a Stream. The module also serves as an example of a STREAMS module using service procedures.

See bufmod(4) for more information.

nullmod(4) (streams-nullmod)
Null module. This is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS module described in the UNIX System V Release 4 Programmer's Manual – STREAMS. The nullmod(4) module also has Linux Fast-STREAMS specific extensions. The nullmod(4) module is used by the perftest(8) performance test program to test the effect of additional levels of put procedure pushed over a Stream. The module also serves as an example of a STREAMS module not using service procedures.

See nullmod(4) for more information.

testmod(4) (streams-testmod)
Test module. This is a Linux Fast-STREAMS specific STREAMS module. The primary purpose of the testmod(4) modules is to provide the test-streams(8) validation test program with the capability to pass specific M_ERROR(9) and M_HANGUP(9) messages to the Stream head for POSIX validation testing. It also serves as an example of how a STREAMS module can properly process M_IOCTL(9) and related messages.

See testmod(4) for more information.

Additional modules are provided by add-on packages.

3.4 Libraries

During the installation process of Linux Fast-STREAMS a subroutine library is built and installed on your system. For 64-bit systems that support 32-bit compatibility, two versions of each library are built and installed: one 64-bit native library and one 32-bit compatibility library. 64-bit native libraries are installed to the /usr/lib64 subdirectory. 32-bit native and 32-bit compatibility libraries are installed to the /usr/lib subdirectory.

libstreams.so.0.0.1
libstreams.so.0
libstreams.so
Provides a shared object library for use by STREAMS applications programs.
libstreams.a
Provides a static library for use by STREAMS applications programs.
libstreams.la
Provides the libtool definitions for the library.

In addition to the libstreams library, Linux Fast-STREAMS also installs compatibility libraries for LiS. These compatibility libraries permit applications previously linked with LiS shared libraries to function with Linux Fast-STREAMS without recompiling or relinking.

libLiS.so.0.0.1
libLiS.so.0
libLiS.so
Provides a shared object library for use by legacy LiS applications programs.
libLiS.a
Provides a static library for use by legacy LiS applications programs.
libLiS.la
Provides the libtool definitions for the library.
libpLiS.so.0.0.1
libpLiS.so.0
libpLiS.so
Provides a shared object library for use by legacy LiS applications programs.
libpLiS.a
Provides a static library for use by legacy LiS applications programs.
libpLiS.la
Provides the libtool definitions for the library.

3.4.1 libstreams Library Routines

The following routines are present in the libstreams libraries. The routines in these libraries are standard STREAMS interface system calls documented in the System V Release 4.2 Programmer's Manual – STREAMS. Refer to the associated manual pages for detailed information on these routines.

fattach(2)
Name a STREAMS special file.
fdetach(2)
Unname a STREAMS special file.
getmsg(2)
Get next message off of a Stream.
getpmsg(2s)
Get next message off of a Stream.
isastream(2)
Test for a STREAMS special file.
pipe(2s)
Create a STREAMS pipe.
putmsg(2)
Put a message to a STREAMS character device.
putpmsg(2s)
Put a band message to a STREAMS character device.
pstrlog(3)
Print a STREAMS log buffer.
strlog(3)
Print a STREAMS log buffer.
vstrlog(3)
Print a STREAMS log buffer.

3.4.2 libLiS Library Routines

The following routines are present in the libLiS libraries. The routines are identical to the routines present in the libstreams library and are provided in the libLiS library for compatibility with existing applications linked against libLiS.

fattach(2)
Name a STREAMS special file.
fdetach(2)
Unname a STREAMS special file.
getmsg(2)
Get next message off of a Stream.
getpmsg(2s)
Get next message off of a Stream.
isastream(2)
Test for a STREAMS special file.
pipe(2s)
Create a STREAMS pipe.
putmsg(2)
Put a message to a STREAMS character device.
putpmsg(2s)
Put a band message to a STREAMS character device.

3.4.3 libpLiS Library Routines

The following routines are present in the libpLiS libraries. The libpLiS library is the same as the libLiS and libstreams libraries but omits the pipe(2s) subroutine. The purpose of the libpLiS library was to permit it to be used as a library preload without affecting the pipe(2s) function used by existing programs linked against libc.

fattach(2)
Name a STREAMS special file.
fdetach(2)
Unname a STREAMS special file.
getmsg(2)
Get next message off of a Stream.
getpmsg(2s)
Get next message off of a Stream.
isastream(2)
Test for a STREAMS special file.
putmsg(2)
Put a message to a STREAMS character device.
putpmsg(2s)
Put a band message to a STREAMS character device.

3.4.4 Using the Library

To use one of the Linux Fast-STREAMS libraries you can include the file sys/stropts.h in you application program source code. On you compiler command line, add the option ‘-I/usr/include/streams’ to include the version of sys/stropts.h that is distributed with Linux Fast-STREAMS.

When linking our program, or performing a final gcc to build your executable, include one of the following options on your command line:

/usr/lib/libstreams.a
-lstreams -static
Link against the static version of the library.
-lstreams
Link against the shared object version of the library.
/usr/lib/libstreams.la
Use with libtool to link additional convenience libraries against the shared or static versions of the library.

Failure to link the executable runtime path for libstreams will result in linker-loader warnings that the functions getpmsg(2s) or putpmsg(2s) are not implemented and will always fail.10.

See also Development for more information.

3.5 Utilities

3.5.1 Init Scripts

Following are System V Init Scripts that are installed by the package:

specfs(8) (/etc/init.d/specfs)
specfs.sh(8) (/etc/init.d/specfs.sh)
System V Init Script for the STREAMS Special Shadow Filesystem. The specfs(8) init script provides the ability to initialize, configure and mount the STREAMS Special Shadow Filesystem, specfs(5). The specfs(8) script provides the RedHat-style init script, whereas the specfs.sh(8) script provides the Debian-style init script.

See specfs(8) for more information.

streams(8) (/etc/init.d/streams)
streams.sh(8) (/etc/init.d/streams.sh)
System V Init Script for the STREAMS Subsystem. The streams(8) init script provides the ability to initialize, configure and mount the STREAMS subsystem, STREAMS(9). The streams(8) script provides the RedHat-style init script, whereas the streams.sh(8) script provides the Debian-style init script.

See streams(8) for more information.

3.5.2 User Utilities

Following are user utilities for manipulating Streams:

strchg(1) (/usr/bin/strchg)
Change Stream configuration. strchg(1) is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS user utility.

strchg(1) is a C-language user program that can be used to alter the configuration of the Stream associated with the caller's standard input. The strchg(1) command pushes modules on the Stream, pops modules off of the Stream, or both. Only the superuser or owner of the STREAMS device can alter the configuration of that Stream. If another user attempts to alter the configuration, the strconf(1) command will fail.

strchg(1) is useful from the shell and, when standard input is redirected from an open file descriptor to the command, can be used to push and pop modules from arbitrary Streams, not just those associated with STREAMS-based terminal devices.

See strchg(1) for more information.

strconf(1) (/usr/bin/strconf)
Query Stream configuration. strconf(1) is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS user utility.

strconf(1) is a C-language user program that can be used to query the configuration of a Stream. When use without any options, it prints a list of the modules in the Stream associated with the standard input, as well as the topmost driver. The list is printed with one name per line, where the first name printed is the topmost module on the Stream and the last item printed is the name of the topmost driver associated with the Stream.

strconf(1) is useful from the shell and, when standard input is redirected from an open file descriptor to the command, can be used to query arbitrary Streams, not just the associated with STREAMS-based terminal devices.

See strconf(1) for more information.

strreset(1) (/usr/bin/strreset)
Reset a Stream. strreset(1) is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS user utility.

strreset(1)is a C-language user program that resets an open Stream by generating an M_FLUSH(9) message to the Stream head. It is used mainly to reset blocked Streams. Wehn it is impossible to reopen the Stream, issue an I_FLUSH or equivalent command. This situation may happen with a process sleeping in a module's close routine, when signals can not be sent to the process (a zombie process exiting, for example).

See strreset(1) for more information.

3.5.3 Administrative Utilities

Following are administrative utilities for manipulating and examining the STREAMS subsystem:

autopush(8) (/usr/sbin/autopush)
Control the autopush module list for a STREAMS device. autopush(8) is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS administrative utility.

autopush(8) is a C-language program that can be used to manipulate and examine which STREAMS modules are automatically pushed over a device when it is opened. It is also possible to restrict the ability to push further modules on the Stream without proper privilege. The autopush(8) utility provides a user program interface to the STREAMS Administrative Driver (sad(4)).

See autopush(8) for more information.

fattach(8) (/usr/sbin/fattach)
Name a STREAMS file. fattach(8) is an LiS utility. Although OSF/1 documentation mentions an fattach manual page in section 8, one does not exist.

fattach(8) opens a pipe(4) and attaches one end of the pipe to a file using fattach(3), and optionally pushes the connld(4) module on the side of the pipe being attached to the file. The other end of the pipe remains available for use by the shell program invoking this command.

fattach(8) provides a easy way for shell programs to use STREAMS-based pipes and to use the facilities of the connld(4) module.

See fattach(8) for more information.

fdetach(8) (/usr/sbin/fdetach)
Unlink a named STREAMS file.

fdetach(8) is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS administrative utility.

fdetach(8) is a C-language program that detaches or disassociates a file descriptor for an open STREAMS device or pipe from its filename in the file system.

See fdetach(8) for more information.

insf(8) (/usr/sbin/insf)
Install special files. insf(8) is the HP-UX way to install special (device) files. This program is not even partially implemented in Linux Fast-STREAMS. Use streams_mknod(8) and friends instead.

See insf(8) for more information.

scls(8) (/usr/sbin/scls)
List STREAMS configuration. scls(8) is a rather useful AIX administrative utility that is also implemented by Linux Fast-STREAMS.

scls(8) is a C-language program that can be used to list module and driver names as well as information and statistics associated with those modules or drivers. The scls(8) utility provides a user program interface to the STREAMS Configuration module (sc(4)).

See scls(8) for more information.

strace(8) (/usr/sbin/strace)
Write STREAMS event trace messages to the standard output. strace(8) is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS administrative utility.

The strace(8) C-language program receives trace event messages from the STREAMS log driver (log(4)) and writes these messages to the standard output. When run as a daemon, strace(8) appends these messages to a log file.

Messages that appear in the trace log are intended to report debugging information that assists with troubleshooting a running STREAMS module or driver.

See strace(8) for more information.

strclean(8) (/usr/sbin/strclean)
Clean up after the STREAMS error logger. strclean(8) is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS administrative utility.

The strclean(8) utility is a bash script that can be used to delete aged log files generated by the STREAMS error logger, strerr(8).

See strclean(8) for more information.

streams_mknod(8) (/usr/sbin/streams_mknod)
Make special device nodes for STREAMS. streams_mknod(8) is a Linux Fast-STREAMS specific administrative utility.

The streams_mknod(8) C-language program can be used to make (or remove) the special device nodes under the /dev directory required by streams-0.9.2.4 package modules and drivers. streams_mknod(8) in invoked by the System V startup script, /etc/init.d/streams.

See streams_mknod(8) for more information.

strerr(8) (/usr/sbin/strerr)
Receive error log messages from the STREAMS log(4) driver. strerr(8) is a standard SVR 4.2 STREAMS administrative utility.

The strerr(8) utility is a C-language program, run as a daemon, that receives error log messages from the STREAMS log driver (log(4)) and writes these message to a log file. By default, strerr(8) logs all STREAM error messages from all drivers and modules.

Messages that appear in the error log are intended to report exceptional conditions that require the attention of the person who administers your system.

See strerr(8) for more information.

strinfo(8) (/usr/sbin/strinfo)
List Stream information. strinfo(8) is a rather useful AIX administrative utility that is also implemented by Linux Fast-STREAMS.

The strinfo(8) C-language program can be used to list Stream instance information as well as information and statistics on a module or driver basis. The scls(8) utility provides a user program interface to the STREAMS Configuration module (sc(4)).

This program is not even partially implemented in Linux Fast-STREAMS yet. User proc(5) file system and the /proc/streams directory instead. Also, see scls(8) for driver and module specific information.

See strinfo(8) for more information.

strload(8) (/usr/sbin/strload)
Loads the STREAMS subsystem. strload(8) is a useful AIX administrative utility that is also implemented by Linux Fast-STREAMS.

The strload(8) bash script can be used to load STREAMS modules and drivers individually or from a configuration file.

See strload(8) for more information.

strsetup(8) (/usr/sbin/strsetup)
Bash script.

See strsetup(8) for more information.

strvf(8) (/usr/sbin/strvf)
C-language program.

See strvf(8) for more information.

3.5.4 Performance Test Programs

Following are performance test programs:

perftest(8) (/usr/sbin/perftest)
C-language program.

See perftest(8) for more information.

perftestn(8) (/usr/sbin/perftestn)
C-language program.

See perftestn(8) for more information.

3.5.5 Conformance Test Programs

Following and conformance and validation testing programs:

test-clone(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-clone)
The test-clone(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the clone(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-clone(8) for more information.

test-connld(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-connld)
The test-connld(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the connld(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-connld(8) for more information.

test-echo(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-echo)
The test-echo(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the echo(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-echo(8) for more information.

test-fifo(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-fifo)
The test-fifo(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the fifo(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-fifo(8) for more information.

test-log(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-log)
The test-log(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the log(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-log(8) for more information.

test-loop(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-loop)
The test-loop(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the loop(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-loop(8) for more information.

test-mux(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-mux)
The test-mux(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the mux(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-mux(8) for more information.

test-nsdev(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-nsdev)
The test-nsdev(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the nsdev(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-nsdev(8) for more information.

test-nuls(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-nuls)
The test-nuls(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the nuls(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-nuls(8) for more information.

test-pipe(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-pipe)
The test-pipe(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the pipe(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-pipe(8) for more information.

test-pipemod(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-pipemod)
The test-pipemod(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the pipemod(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-pipemod(8) for more information.

test-sad(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-sad)
The test-sad(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the sad(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-sad(8) for more information.

test-sc(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-sc)
The test-sc(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the sc(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-sc(8) for more information.

test-streams(8) (/usr/libexec/streams/test-streams)
The test-streams(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the STREAMS(9) subsystem and primarily the sth(4) Stream head.

See test-streams(8) for more information.

For the proper way to execute these validation test programs in a conformance and validation test suite, see Running Test Suites.

4 Development

For development using the streams package, See About This Manual.

4.1 Header Files

Header files are installed, typically, in the /usr/include/streams subdirectory. To use the header files from the package, ‘-I/usr/include/streams’ must be included in the gcc command line as a compile option. This is true regardless of whether user space or kernel space programs are being compiled.

In general, ‘-I’ include directives on the gcc command line should be ordered in the reverse order of the dependencies between packages. So, for example, if the include files from all add-on packages are required, the order of these directives would be: ‘-I/usr/include/strss7 -I/usr/include/strsctp -I/usr/include/strinet -I/usr/include/strxnet -I/usr/include/strxns -I/usr/include/strcompat -I/usr/include/streams’.

Following are the user visible header files provided by the streams-0.9.2.4 package in directory /usr/include/streams:

strlog.h
This is the primary header file for the strlog(4) driver. It is normally only included by user space programs when interacting with the log(4) driver. See log(4) for more information.
stropts.h
This is the primary user header file for the Stream head. It is normally only included by user space programs when interacting with the Stream head. See sth(4) for more information.
log.h
This is the primary header file for the log(4) driver. It is normally only included by user space programs when interacting with the log(4) driver. See log(4) for more information.
loop.h
This is the primary header file for the loop(4) driver. It is normally only included by user space programs when interacting with the loop(4) driver. See loop(4) for more information.
sad.h
This is the primary header file for the sad(4) driver. It is normally only included by user space programs when interacting with the sad(4) driver. See sad(4) for more information.
sys/cmn_err.h
This is the system specific kernel header file for the cmn_err(9) utility.
sys/ddi.h
This is the system specific kernel header file for various STREAMS DDI(9) utilities. It is normal only included by kernel space STREAMS modules and drivers. See DDI(9) for more information.
sys/debug.h
This is the system specific kernel header file for kernel debugging macros. It is normal only included by kernel space STREAMS modules and drivers.
sys/dki.h
This is the system specific kernel header file for various STREAMS DKI(9) utilities. It is normal only included by kernel space STREAMS modules and drivers. See DKI(9) for more information.
sys/kmem.h
This is the system specific kernel header file for kmem_alloc(9) and related utilities. It is normal only included by kernel space STREAMS modules and drivers. See kmem_alloc(9) for more information.
sys/strconf.h
This is the system specific kernel header file for STREAMS driver and module configuration. It is normal only included by kernel space STREAMS modules and drivers.
sys/strdebug.h
This is the system specific kernel header file for STREAMS driver and module debugging macros. It is normal only included by kernel space STREAMS modules and drivers.
sys/stream.h
This is the system specific kernel header file for STREAMS drivers and modules. It is normal only included by kernel space STREAMS modules and drivers. See STREAMS(9) for more information.
sys/strlog.h
This is the system specific header file for the strlog(4) and strlog(9) facilities. It is normally only included by kernel space programs when interacting with the log(4) driver. See log(4) for more information.
sys/stropts.h
This is the system specific user header file for the Stream head. It is normally only included by user space programs when interacting with the Stream head. See sth(4) for more information.
sys/stropts32.h
This is the system specific user 32/64-bit header file for the Stream head. It is normally only included by user space programs when interacting with the Stream head. See sth(4) for more information.
sys/strsubr.h
This is the system specific kernel header file for STREAMS private definitions. It is normal only included by kernel space STREAMS modules and drivers. See STREAMS(9) for more information.
sys/log.h
This is the system specific header file for the log(4) driver. It is normally only included by kernel space programs when interacting with the log(4) driver. See log(4) for more information.
sys/loop.h
This is the system specific header file for the loop(4) driver. It is normally only included by kernel space programs when interacting with the loop(4) driver. See loop(4) for more information.
sys/sad.h
This is the system specific header file for the sad(4) driver. It is normally only included by kernel space programs when interacting with the sad(4) driver. See sad(4) for more information.
sys/sc.h
This is the system specific header file for the sc(4) module. It is normally only included by user or kernel space programs when interacting with the sc(4) driver. See sc(4) for more information.
sys/testmod.h
This is the system specific header file for the testmod(4) module. It is normally only included by user or kernel space programs when interacting with the testmod(4) driver. See testmod(4) for more information.

4.1.1 User Space Programs

Typical include files for interacting with STREAMS from user space include the stropts.h header file. Additional header files for interacting with specific drivers or modules may also be required.

4.1.2 Kernel Space Drivers and Modules

Typical include files for writing STREAMS modules and drivers for kernel space include the sys/cmn_err.h, sys/kmem.h, sys/dki.h, sys/stream.h, sys/ddi.h, and sys/strconf.h header files. Additional header files for interacting with specific drivers or modules may also be required.

4.2 Libraries

Shared or static versions of the libstreams library must be linked when using the streams-0.9.2.4 package. This library must either be specified on the gcc command line as a shared library (e.g. ‘-lstreams’) or as a static library (e.g. ‘/usr/lib/libstreams.a’).

If the shared library is linked, include the following options on the gcc command line:

-lstreams
Link to the /usr/lib/libstreams.so shared library.

If the static library is linked, include the following options on the gcc command line:

/usr/lib/libstreams.a
Link to the /usr/lib/libstreams.a static library.

4.3 Kernel Modules

Developing STREAMS kernel modules is similar to user space programs with regard to header files. /usr/include/streams should be placed as an include directory to search in the gcc command line. The rules for compiling Linux kernel modules should be followed. In particular, several important intricacies should be considered:

  • The gcc compiler used to compile the kernel modules must be the same version of compiler that was used to compile the kernel.
  • The gcc command line must have the same compile flags that were used to compile the kernel.
  • The gcc command line must define several important kernel defines including ‘-DLINUX’, ‘-D__KERNEL__’, as well as the base name of the module.
  • The gcc command line must include several important include files directly on the command line such as ‘--include /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/build/include/linux/autoconf.h’ and maybe even ‘--include /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/build/include/linux/modversions.h’.11

4.4 Manual Pages

The streams-0.9.2.4 package installs a number of manual pages in the /usr/share/man directory as follows:

The following manual pages are installed in Section 1 of the manual (in the subdirectory /usr/share/man/man1):

strchg(1)change Stream configuration.
strconf(1)query Stream configuration.
strreset(1)reset a Stream.

The following manual pages are installed in Section 2 of the manual (in the subdirectory /usr/share/man/man2):

fattach(2)name a STREAMS special file.
fdetach(2)unname a STREAMS special file.
getmsg(2)get next message off a Stream.
getpmsg(2s)get next message off a Stream.
isastream(2)test for a STREAMS special file.
pipe(2s)create a STREAMS pipe.
poll(2s)wait for an event on a STREAMS file descriptor.
putmsg(2)put a message to a STREAMS character device.
putpmsg(2s)put a band message to a STREAMS character device.
read(2s)read from a file descriptor.
readv(2s)read or write a vector.
write(2s)write to a file descriptor.
writev(2s)read or write a vector.

The following manual pages are installed in Section 3 of the manual (in the subdirectory /usr/share/man/man3):

streams(3)STREAMS system call library.
libstreams(3)STREAMS system call library.
LiS(3)STREAMS system call library.
pLiS(3)STREAMS system call library.
libLiS(3)STREAMS system call library.
libpLiS(3)STREAMS system call library.
fattach(3)name a STREAMS special file.
fdetach(3)unname a STREAMS special file.
isastream(3)test for a STREAMS special file.
pipe(3)create a STREAMS pipe.
pstrlog(3)print a STREAMS log buffer.
s_pipe(3)create a STREAMS pipe.
strlog(3)print a STREAMS log buffer.
vstrlog(3)print a STREAMS log buffer.

The following manual pages are installed in Section 4 of the manual (in the subdirectory /usr/share/man/man4):

bufmod(4)STREAMS buffering null module.
clone(4)the STREAMS clone driver.
connld(4)STREAMS connection line discipline module.
conslog(4)STREAMS log device.
echo(4)echo STREAMS device.
fifo(4s)STREAMS-based FIFO device.
log(4)STREAMS log device.
loop(4)STREAMS loop-around pseudo-device driver.
loop_clone(4)STREAMS loop-around pseudo-device driver.
mux(4)STREAMS multiplexing pseudo-device driver.
nsdev(4)named STREAMS device.
nullmod(4)STREAMS null module.
nuls(4)null STREAMS device.
pipe(4)STREAMS bi-directional pipe device.
pipemod(4)STREAMS-based pipe module.
s_fifo(4)STREAMS-based FIFO device.
sad(4)STREAMS Administrative Driver.
sc(4)STREAMS Configuration module.
sfx(4)STREAMS-based FIFO device.
sloop(4)STREAMS loop-around pseudo-device driver.
spx(4)STREAMS bi-directional pipe device.
sth(4)STREAMS Stream head module.
strlog(4)STREAMS log device.
testmod(4)STREAMS test module.

The following manual pages are installed in Section 5 of the manual (in the subdirectory /usr/share/man/man5):

autopush(5)control the autopush module list for a STREAMS device.
specfs(5)STREAMS special device shadow file system.
strapush(5)STREAMS autopush structure.
strioctl(5)STREAMS I/O control data structure.
strsetup.conf(5)configuration file for STREAMS drivers.

The following manual pages are installed in Section 7 of the manual (in the subdirectory /usr/share/man/man7):

streamio(7)STREAMS ioctl commands.
I_ANCHOR(7)STREAMS anchor input-output control.
I_ATMARK(7)check if a STREAMS message is marked.
I_CANPUT(7)check if a STREAMS band is writable.
I_CKBAND(7)check if a STREAMS band is readable.
I_EGETSIG(7)get enhanced STREAMS SIGPOLL events.
I_ESETSIG(7)set enhanced STREAMS SIGPOLL events.
I_FATTACH(7)emulate fattach(2) system call.
I_FDETACH(7)emulate fdetach(2) system call.
I_FDINSERT(7)insert a Stream identifier into a STREAMS message and send it downstream.
I_FIND(7)find a STREAMS module on a Stream.
I_FLUSH(7)flush messages from a STREAMS special file.
I_FLUSHBAND(7)flush messages for a band from a STREAMS special file.
I_GERROPT(7)get error options for a STREAMS file.
I_GETBAND(7)get band number of a message on a Stream.
I_GETCLTIME(7)get close time for a STREAMS file.
I_GETPMSG(7)STREAMS getpmsg(2s) system call emulation.
I_GETSIG(7)get SIGPOLL events.
I_GRDOPT(7)get STREAMS read options.
I_GWROPT(7)get STREAMS write options.
I_ISASTREAM(7)emulate isastream(2) system call.
I_LINK(7)link a Stream beneath a STREAMS multiplexing driver.
I_LIST(7)list STREAMS module names on a Stream.
I_LOOK(7)look at topmost STREAMS module on a Stream.
I_NREAD(7)number of unread bytes on a Stream.
I_PEEK(7)peek at STREAMS message on read queue.
I_PIPE(7)obtain a STREAMS based pipe.
I_PLINK(7)persistently link a Stream beneath a STREAMS multiplexing driver.
I_POP(7)pop a STREAMS module from a Stream.
I_PUNLINK(7)unlink a STREAMS persistent link.
I_PUSH(7)push a STREAMS module on a Stream.
I_PUTPMSG(7)STREAMS putpmsg(2s) system call emulation.
I_RECVFD(7)receive a file descriptor on a Stream.
I_SENDFD(7)send a file descriptor on a Stream.
I_SERROPT(7)set error options for a STREAMS file.
I_SETCLTIME(7)set close time for a STREAMS file.
I_SETSIG(7)set SIGPOLL events.
I_SRDOPT(7)set STREAMS read options.
I_STR(7)STREAMS intput-output control.
I_SWROPT(7)set STREAMS write options.
I_UNLINK(7)unlink a Stream from a STREAMS multiplexing driver.

The following manual pages are installed in Section 8 of the manual (in the subdirectory /usr/share/man/man8):

autopush(8)control the autopush module list for a STREAMS device.
fattach(8)name a STREAMS file.
fdetach(8)unname a STREAMS file.
insf(8)install special device files.
perftest(8)STREAMS benchmark performance tests on a pipe.
perftestn(8)STREAMS benchmark performance tests on a pipe.
scls(8)produce a list of STREAMS module and driver names.
specfs(8)System V Init Script for the STREAMS Shadow Special Filesystem.
specfs.sh(8)System V Init Script for the STREAMS Shadow Special Filesystem.
strace(8)write STREAMS event trace messages to the standard output.
strclean(8)clean up the STREAMS error logger.
streams(8)System V Init Script for the STREAMS subsystem.
streams_mknod(8)create or remove STREAMS device nodes.
streams.sh(8)System V Init Script for the STREAMS subsystem.
strerr(8)receive error log messages from the STREAMS log(4) driver.
strinfo(8)display information about STREAMS devices.
strload(8)load the STREAMS subsystem.
strsetup(8)STREAMS setup command.
strvf(8)STREAMS verification tool.
test-clone(8)a test suite executable for the clone(4) STREAMS driver.
test-connld(8)a test suite executable for the connld(4) STREAMS module.
test-echo(8)a test suite executable for the echo(4) STREAMS driver.
test-fifo(8)a test suite executable for the fifo(4) STREAMS driver.
test-log(8)a test suite executable for the log(4) STREAMS driver.
test-loop(8)a test suite executable for the loop(4) STREAMS driver.
test-mux(8)a test suite executable for the mux(4) STREAMS driver.
test-nsdev(8)a test suite executable for the nsdev(4) STREAMS driver.
test-nuls(8)a test suite executable for the nuls(4) STREAMS driver.
test-pipe(8)a test suite executable for the pipe(4) STREAMS driver.
test-pipemod(8)a test suite executable for the pipemod(4) STREAMS module.
test-sad(8)a test suite executable for the sad(4) STREAMS driver.
test-sc(8)a test suite executable for the sc(4) STREAMS module.
test-streams(8)a test suite executable for STREAMS.

The following manual pages are installed in Section 9 of the manual (in the subdirectory /usr/share/man/man9):

Intro(9)introduction to STREAMS kernel functions.
STREAMS(9)introduction to STREAMS kernel functions.
SPG(9)Linux Fast-STREAMS Programmers Guide.
DDI(9)Device Driver interface/Driver Kernel Interface.
LfS(9)introduction to STREAMS kernel functions.
mp-streams(9)multi-processor STREAMS executive.
M_BACKDONE(9)STREAMS backwash done direct I/O message.
M_BACKWASH(9)STREAMS backwash direct I/O message.
M_BREAK(9)STREAMS break message.
M_COPYIN(9)STREAMS copyin message.
M_COPYOUT(9)STREAMS copyout message.
M_CTL(9)STREAMS control message.
M_DATA(9)STREAMS data message.
M_DELAY(9)STREAMS delay message.
M_DONTPLAY(9)STREAMS don't play direct I/O message.
M_ERROR(9)STREAMS error message.
M_EVENT(9)STREAMS event message.
M_FLUSH(9)STREAMS flush message.
M_HANGUP(9)STREAMS hangup message.
M_HPDATA(9)STREAMS high priority data message.
M_IOCACK(9)STREAMS IO control acknowledgement message.
M_IOCDATA(9)STREAMS IO control data message.
M_IOCNAK(9)STREAMS IO control negative acknowledgement message.
M_IOCTL(9)STREAMS IO control message.
M_LETSPLAY(9)STREAMS let's plan direct I/O message.
M_NOTIFY(9)STREAMS notify message.
M_PASSFP(9)STREAMS pass file pointer message.
M_PCCTL(9)STREAMS priority control message.
M_PCEVENT(9)STREAMS priority event message.
M_PCPROTO(9)STREAMS priority protocol message.
M_PCRSE(9)STREAMS priority reserved message.
M_PCSETOPTS(9)STREAMS priority set options message.
M_PCSIG(9)STREAMS priority signal message.
M_PROTO(9)STREAMS protocol message.
M_READ(9)STREAMS read message.
M_RSE(9)STREAMS reserved message.
M_SETOPTS(9)STREAMS set options message.
M_SIG(9)STREAMS signal message.
M_START(9)STREAMS start message.
M_STARTI(9)STREAMS start input message.
M_STOP(9)STREAMS stop message.
M_STOPI(9)STREAMS stop input message.
M_TRAIL(9)STREAMS trail message.
M_UNHANGUP(9)STREAMS unhangup message.
OTHERQ(9)return other queue of a STREAMS queue pair.
QNORM(9)STREAMS data block structure.
QPCTL(9)STREAMS data block structure.
RD(9)return the read queue of a STREAMS queue pair.
SAMESTR(9)test for a STREAMS pipe or FIFO.
WR(9)return the write queue of a STREAMS queue pair.
adjmsg(9)trim bytes from the front or back of a STREAMS message.
allocb(9)allocate a STREAMS message and data block.
alloclk(9)allocate or free a STREAMS link block.
allocq(9)allocate a STREAMS queue pair.
allocstr(9)allocate a STREAMS Stream head.
appq(9)append one STREAMS message after another.
apush_get(9)get the autopush list associated with a STREAMS driver.
apush_set(9)set the autopush list associated with a STREAMS driver.
apush_vml(9)verify a STREAMS module list.
autopush(9)perform autopush operations on a newly opened Stream.
autopush_add(9)add an autopush list entry for a given STREAMS device number.
autopush_del(9)delete an autopush list entry for a given STREAMS device number.
autopush_find(9)find an autopush list entry for a given STREAMS device number.
autopush_search(9)find an autopush list entry for a given STREAMS device name and number.
autopush_vml(9)verify a STREAMS module list.
backq(9)find the upstream or downstream queue.
bcanget(9)test for message arrival on a band on a Stream.
bcangetany(9)check whether messages are in any (non-zero) band.
bcanput(9)test flow control on a STREAMS message queue.
bcanputany(9)check if a message can be put to any (non-zero) band on a queue.
bcanputnext(9)test flow control on the next STREAMS message queue.
bcanputnextany(9)check if a message can be put to any (non-zero) band on the next queue.
bcid_t(9)install a buffer callback.
bcmp(9)compare byte strings.
bcopy(9)copy byte strings.
bufcall(9)install a buffer callback.
bufcall_id_t(9)install a buffer callback.
bzero(9)zero a byte string.
canenable(9)test whether a STREAMS message queue can be scheduled.
canget(9)test for message arrival on a Stream.
canput(9)test flow control on a STREAMS message queue.
canputnext(9)test flow control on the next STREAMS message queue.
cdev_count(9)character device switch table helper functions.
cdev_find(9)character device switch table helper functions.
cdev_match(9)character device switch table helper functions.
cdev_minor(9)character device switch table helper functions.
cdev_str(9)character device switch table helper functions.
cdevsw(9)the SVR 4 character device switch table structure.
cdevsw_list(9)the SVR 4 character device switch table structure.
cdevsw_lock(9)the SVR 4 character device switch table structure.
cdrv_get(9)the SVR 4 character device switch table structure.
cdrv_put(9)the SVR 4 character device switch table structure.
cmaj_add(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmaj_del(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmaj_get(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmin_add(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmin_count(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmin_del(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmin_find(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmin_get(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmin_ini(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmin_rel(9)major/minor character device node helper functions.
cmn_err(9)print a kernel command error.
copyb(9)copy a STREAMS message block.
copyin(9)copy user data in from user space to kernel space.
copymsg(9)copy a STREAMS message.
copyout(9)copy user data in from kernel space to user space.
copyreq(9)STREAMS copy request block structure.
copyresp(9)STREAMS copy response block structure.
cred_t(9)credentials structure.
ctlmsg(9)test a STREAMS message type for control.
datab(9)STREAMS data block structure.
datamsg(9)test a STREAMS message type for data.
dblk_t(9)STREAMS data block structure.
delay(9)postpone the calling process for a number of clock ticks.
dev_t(9)STREAMS device type.
devnode(9)STREAMS character device node structure.
do_fattach(9)implement the fattach(2) system call.
do_fdetach(9)implement the fdetach(2) system call.
do_spipe(9)implement the pipe(2s) system call.
drv_getparm(9)driver retrieve kernel parameter.
drv_hztomsec(9)convert kernel tick time between microseconds or milliseconds.
drv_hztousec(9)convert kernel tick time between microseconds or milliseconds.
drv_msectohz(9)convert kernel tick time between microseconds or milliseconds.
drv_priv(9)check if current process is privileged.
drv_usectohz(9)convert kernel tick time between microseconds or milliseconds.
drv_usecwait(9)delay for a number of microseconds.
dupb(9)duplicate a STREAMS message block.
dupmsg(9)duplicate a STREAMS message.
enableok(9)allow a STREAMS message queue to be scheduled.
enableq(9)schedule a STREAMS message queue service procedure.
esballoc(9)allocate a STREAMS message and data block with caller supplied data buffer.
esbbcall(9)install a buffer callback for an extended STREAMS message block.
flushband(9)flushes a band of STREAMS messages from a queue.
flushq(9)flush messages from a STERAMS message queue.
fmod_add(9)file module switch table helper functions.
fmod_count(9)file module switch table helper functions.
fmod_del(9)file module switch table helper functions.
fmod_find(9)file module switch table helper functions.
fmod_get(9)file module switch table helper functions.
fmod_put(9)file module switch table helper functions.
fmod_str(9)file module switch table helper functions.
fmodsw(9)the SVR 4 STREAMS module switch table.
fmodsw_list(9)the SVR 4 STREAMS module switch table.
fmodsw_lock(9)the SVR 4 STREAMS module switch table.
freeb(9)frees a STREAMS message block.
freelk(9)allocate or free a STREAMS link block.
freemsg(9)frees a STREAMS message.
freeq(9)deallocate a STREAMS queue pair.
freestr(9)deallocate a STREAMS Stream head.
freezestr(9)freeze the state of a Stream.
frtn_t(9)allocate a STREAMS message and data block with caller supplied data buffer.
getadmin(9)get the administrative function pointer for a STREAMS module.
getmajor(9)get the internal major device number for a device.
getmid(9)get the STREAMS module id for a name.
getminor(9)get the extended minor device number for a device.
getq(9)get a message from a STREAMS message queue.
insq(9)insert a message into a STREAMS message queue.
iocblk(9)STREAMS input-output control block structure.
isdatablk(9)test a STREAMS data block for data type.
isdatamsg(9)test a STREAMS data block for data type.
kmem_alloc(9)allocate kernel memory.
kmem_alloc_node(9)allocate kernel memory.
kmem_free(9)deallocate kernel memory.
kmem_zalloc(9)allocate and zero kernel memory.
kmem_zalloc_node(9)allocate and zero kernel memory.
linkb(9)link a message block to a STREAMS message.
linkblk(9)STREAMS link block structure.
linkmsg(9)link a message block to a STREAMS message.
major_t(9)get the internal major device number for a device.
makedevice(9)create a device from major and minor device numbers.
max(9)determine the maximum of two integers.
mblk_t(9)STREAMS message block structure.
min(9)determine the minimum of two integers.
minor_t(9)get the extended minor device number for a device.
modID_t(9)get the STREAMS module id for a name.
module_info(9)STREAMS module information structure.
module_stat(9)STREAMS module statistics structure.
module_stat_t(9)STREAMS module statistics structure.
msgb(9)STREAMS message block structure.
msgdsize(9)calculate the size of the data in a STREAMS message.
msgpullup(9)pull up bytes in a STREAMS message.
msgsize(9)calculate the size of the message blocks in a STREAMS message.
noenable(9)disable a STREAMS message queue from being scheduled.
pcmsg(9)test a data block message type for priority control.
pullupmsg(9)pull up the bytes in a STREAMS message.
put(9)invoke the put procedure for a STREAMS driver of module with a STREAMS message.
putbq(9)put a message back on a STREAMS message queue.
putctl(9)put a control message on a STREAMS message queue.
putctl1(9)put a one-byte control message on a STREAMS message queue.
putctl2(9)put a two-byte control message on a STREAMS message queue.
putnext(9)put a message on the downstream STREAMS message queue.
putnextctl(9)put a control message on the next STREAMS message queue.
putnextctl1(9)put a one-byte control message on the next STREAMS message queue.
putnextctl2(9)put a two-byte control message on the next STREAMS message queue.
putq(9)put a message on a STREAMS message queue.
qattach(9)attach a module onto a STREAMS file.
qbackenable(9)perform back enabling on a STREAMS queue.
qband(9)queue band structure.
qband_t(9)queue band structure.
qclose(9)close a STREAMS driver or module.
qcountstrm(9)add all counts on all STREAMS message queues in a Stream.
qdelete(9)delete a queue pair from a Stream.
qdetach(9)detach a module from a STREAMS file.
qenable(9)schedule a STREAMS message queue service procedure.
qfields(9)set attributes of a STREAMS message queue.
qfields_t(9)set attributes of a STREAMS message queue.
qi_putp(9)STREAMS driver or module put procedure.
qi_putp_t(9)STREAMS driver or module put procedure.
qi_qadmin(9)STREAMS driver or module admin routine.
qi_qadmin_t(9)STREAMS driver or module admin routine.
qi_qclose(9)STREAMS driver or module close routine.
qi_qclose_t(9)STREAMS driver or module close routine.
qi_qopen(9)STREAMS driver or module open routine.
qi_qopen_t(9)STREAMS driver or module open routine.
qi_srvp(9)STREAMS driver or module service procedure.
qi_srvp_t(9)STREAMS driver or module service procedure.
qinit(9)STREAMS queue initialization structure.
qinsert(9)insert a queue pair beneath another queue pair in a Stream.
qopen(9)call a STREAMS driver or module open routine.
qprocsoff(9)disable STREAMS message queue processing for multi-processing.
qprocson(9)enable a STREAMS message queue for multi-processing.
qready(9)test if queue procedures are scheduled.
qreply(9)replies to a message from a STREAMS message queue.
qscan(9)place a queue on the scan list.
qsize(9)return the number of messages on a queue.
queue(9)STREAMS message queue structure.
queue_t(9)STREAMS message queue structure.
register_clone(9)register a clone(4) minor.
register_cmajor(9)register external device major number.
register_ioctl32(9)register a 32-bit IO control command.
register_strdev(9)register a STREAMS device.
register_strdrv(9)register a STREAMS driver.
register_strlog(9)register a STREAMS logger.
register_strmod(9)register a STREAMS module.
register_strnod(9)register a STREAMS minor device node.
rmvb(9)remove a message block from a STREAMS message.
rmvq(9)remove a message from a STREAMS message queue.
runqueues(9)run queue service procedures and other asynchronous STREAMS events.
sd_get(9)acquire and release a reference to the Stream head.
sd_put(9)acquire and release a reference to the Stream head.
sdev_add(9)character device switch table helper functions.
sdev_del(9)character device switch table helper functions.
sdev_get(9)character device switch table helper functions.
sdev_ini(9)character device switch table helper functions.
sdev_put(9)character device switch table helper functions.
sdev_rel(9)character device switch table helper functions.
sealloc(9)STREAMS event allocators.
sefree(9)STREAMS event allocators.
setq(9)set sizes and procedures associated with a STREAMS message queue.
setqsched(9)invoke the STREAMS scheduler.
setsq(9)set synchronization queues, sizes and procedures associated with a STREAMS message queue.
skballoc(9)allocate a STREAMS message and data block with a caller supplied socket buffer.
spec_open(9)STREAMS special device shadow file system.
spec_reparent(9)STREAMS special device shadow file system.
specfs_mount(9)STREAMS special device shadow file system.
specfs_umount(9)STREAMS special device shadow file system.
str_close(9)Stream head module procedures.
str_open(9)Stream head module procedures.
streamtab(9)STREAMS module definition structure.
streamtab_t(9)STREAMS module definition structure.
strgetpmsg(9)perform a getpmsg(2s) operation on a Stream head.
strioctl(9)perform a ioctl(2s) operation on a Stream head.
strlog(9)pass a message to the STREAMS logger.
strm_f_ops(9)file operations for Stream heads.
stroptions(9)STREAMS Stream head options structure.
strpoll(9)perform a poll(2s) operation on a Stream head.
strputpmsg(9)perform a putpmsg(2s) operation on a Stream head.
strqget(9)get attributes of a STREAMS message queue.
strqset(9)set attributes of a STREAMS message queue.
strread(9)perform a read(2s) operation on a Stream head.
strrput(9)Stream head module procedures.
strsendpage(9)perform a sendfile(2s) operation on a Stream head.
strthread(9)the SVR 4 STREAMS scheduler thread structure and array.
strthreads(9)the SVR 4 STREAMS scheduler thread structure and array.
strwput(9)Stream head module procedures.
strwrite(9)perform a write(2s) operation on a Stream head.
strwsrv(9)Stream head module procedures.
sysctl_str_nstrpush(9)introduction to STREAMS kernel functions.
sysctl_str_strctlsz(9)introduction to STREAMS kernel functions.
sysctl_str_strmsgsz(9)introduction to STREAMS kernel functions.
testb(9)test if a STREAMS message can be allocated.
timeout(9)start a timer.
timeout_id_t(9)start a timer.
timo_fcn_t(9)start a timer.
toid_t(9)start a timer.
unbufcall(9)remove a STREAMS buffer callback.
unfreezestr(9)thaw the state of a Stream queue.
unlinkb(9)unlink a message block from a STREAMS message.
unlinkmsg(9)unlink a message block from a STREAMS message.
unregister_clone(9)unregister a clone(4) minor.
unregister_cmajor(9)unregister external device major number.
unregister_ioctl32(9)unregister a 32-bit IO control command.
unregister_strdev(9)unregister a STREAMS device.
unregister_strdrv(9)unregister a STREAMS driver.
unregister_strmod(9)unregister a STREAMS module.
unregister_strnod(9)unregister a STREAMS minor device node.
untimeout(9)stop a timer.
unweldq(9)unweld two queues.
vcmn_err(9)print a kernel command error.
vstrlog(9)pass a message to the STREAMS logger.
vstrlog_t(9)register a new STREAMS log device.
weld_arg_t(9)weld two (or four) queues together.
weld_fcn_t(9)weld two (or four) queues together.
weldq(9)weld two (or four) queues together.
xmsgsize(9)calculate the size of message blocks in a STREAMS message.

5 Porting

Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a rich set of STREAMS functions, DDI/DKI functions and utilities based on SVR 4.2 MP for the development of STREAMS modules and drivers. Although these functions and capabilities provide all of the utilities necessary for the development of STREAMS modules and drivers, it represents the common set of functions provided by other STREAMS implementations.

Some other STREAMS implementations provide interfaces, utilities and helper functions specific to those implementations. Where STREAMS implementations differ the most is in the manner in which they configure and register STREAMS drivers and modules for interface to the operating system, including registration functions, device numbering, creation of minor device nodes, administration and other mechanisms not specified by the System V Release 4 Programmer's Guide – STREAMS.

To assist with porting of STREAMS drivers and modules from other STREAMS implementations and UNIX based operating systems to Linux Fast-STREAMS, Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a separate STREAMS Compatibility add-on package, called strcompat-0.9.2.7,12 that provide source level compatibility with a wide range of mainstream STREAMS implementations and significant groups of compatibility and helper functions (such as those from Solaris and Mentat). These compatibility packages also provide separate demand loadable kernel modules that provide the additional compatibility functionality with Linux Fast-STREAMS.

Perhaps one of the most important ports to Linux Fast-STREAMS is from the deprecated and deficient LiS package to Linux Fast-STREAMS. The STREAMS Compatibility package, strcompat, also provides a source level compatibility module that provides source level compatibility to LiS to ease porting LiS drivers and modules to the superior Linux Fast-STREAMS.

In general, when porting to Linux Fast-STREAMS from another STREAMS implementation, the following items will need the most attention:

Header Files
The STREAMS and operating system specific header files that must be included by kernel modules to implement STREAMS drivers or modules are specific to each STREAMS implementation. Although there are some basic header files to include (sys/stream.h, sys/strconf.h, sys/ddi.h, sys/cmn_err.h, sys/dki.h, sys/kmem.h), the order in which these headers are included and the additional operating system specific headers are implementation specific. See the example drivers and modules for the header files that are necessary for Linux Fast-STREAMS STREAMS modules and drivers.
Kernel Module Mechanism
The mechanism for creating, configuring and loading kernel modules is specific to the operating system implementation. Linux Fast-STREAMS uses the normal Linux mechanisms for kernel modules also for STREAMS drivers and modules.
Configuration and Registration
The STREAMS driver or module will need to be converted to use the Linux Fast-STREAMS configuration and registration mechanisms. See register_strdev(9), unregister_strdev(9), register_strmod(9) and unregister_strmod(9) for more specific information on the Linux Fast-STREAMS configuration and registration mechanisms.
Non-STREAMS DDI/DKI Facilities
Any of the non-STREAMS DDI/DKI facilities or operating system specific facilities that are used by the STREAMS driver or module may need to be replaced with the Linux equivalent. Examples of such facilities include basic locks, read-write locks, semaphores and mutexes, atomic integers, interrupt suppression, bus access and memory mapping functions.
Binary Modules
When STREAMS drivers or modules are released as binary objects and source code is not available, it is still possible to convert the binary module for use with Linux Fast-STREAMS. The facility to convert binary modules for use with Linux Fast-STREAMS is not, however, part of the base package and is not part of the STREAMS Compatibility package. A separate add-on package, the Binary Compatibility Modules package, strbcm-0.9.2.5 was developed explicitly for this purpose.13

5.1 Porting from LiS

Applications programs to not need to be ported, or even recompiled when they use shared libraries. Linux Fast-STREAMS provides LiS compatible shared object libraries. Applications compiled against static libraries will need to be recompiled unless Linux Fast-STREAMS was configured for STREAMS binary compatibility mode.14

In general, if no LiS specific functions are used (other than STREAMS driver or module registration functions), porting of LiS drivers and modules to Linux Fast-STREAMS is straightforward. Linux Fast-STREAMS provides several STREAMS drivers and modules that are common to both OpenSS7 Linux Fast-STREAMS and LiS releases. These drivers and modules provide examples of how to write STREAMS drivers or modules that can run under either LiS or Linux Fast-STREAMS. The common modules and drivers are as follows:

src/drivers/echo.c echo(4)
src/drivers/mux.c mux(4)
src/drivers/nuls.c nuls(4)
src/modules/nullmod.c nullmod(4)
src/modules/sc.c sc(4)
src/modules/testmod.c testmod(4)

When built for Linux Fast-STREAMS, ‘C’ preprocessor symbol ‘LFS’ is defined; when built for LiS, ‘LIS’ is defined.

LiS provides many simple wrapper functions that are Linux kernel functions with ‘lis_’ prepended to the name. Aside from licensing issues associated with using these wrapper functions, in many cases it is possible to simply drop the ‘lis_’ from the function call and use the Linux functions directly. This is true for most spin locks, read-write locks, semaphores, mutexes, atomic integers, bus access and memory mapping functions.

When many or specific LiS functions calls are necessary, it is better to use the LiS compatibility module present in the strcompat-0.9.2.7 package.

5.2 Porting from SVR 4.2 MP

When porting from SVR 4.2 MP or a STREAMS implementation based closely on SVR 4.2 MP, such as SUPER-UX, UXP/V, IRIX or many of the real-time operating system implementations (e.g. VxWorks), it is possible to port directly to Linux Fast-STREAMS without using the STREAMS Compatibility package. Event when porting from AIX, HP-UX and OSF/1 it is possible to avoid using the compatibility package.

Most pseudo-device drivers and modules should not require any special facilities beyond basic locks and porting may be straightforward. Where extensive implementation specific DDI/DKI or operating system functions are required, it is better to use the STREAMS Compatibility package and modules closest to the specific implementation being ported from.

5.3 Porting from Solaris

When porting from Solaris there are both STREAMS facilities and extensive DDI/DKI facilities that differ greatly from basic SVR 4.2 MP STREAMS and DDI/DKI functions. For porting all but the most trivial of STREAMS drivers and modules written specifically for Solaris, it is better to use the STREAMS Compatibility package and the Solaris compatibility module provided by that package.15

5.4 Porting from UnixWare

When porting from UnixWare there are extensive operating system facilities that differ greatly from basic Linux facilities. For the most part these are basic locks, read-write locks, condition variables, sleep locks, atomic integers, bus access and mapping functions. Although Linux provides equivalents in most of these categories, the STREAMS Compatibility package contains a compatibility module for UnixWare that provides source compatibility with most of these functions. It is recommended that all but the most trivial of UnixWare drivers and modules use the STREAMS Compatibility package when porting.

5.5 Porting from Mentat

When porting a STREAMS driver or module from a Mentat implementation (such as AIX, HP-UX, OSF/1, Mac OT) that makes heavy use of the Mentatmi_’ or ‘mps_’ helper functions, it is best to use the OpenSS7 implementations of those functions available in the STREAMS Compatibility package directly. The STREAMS Compatibility package provides a Mentat Portable STREAMS compatibility module that provides implementations of the Mentat functions found in AIX, OSF/1 and Mac OT.16

6 Conformance

6.1 Standards Compliance

Linux Fast-STREAMS was designed and implemented to be compliant with as many standards impinging on STREAMS as possible. There are three areas of standards compliance as follows:

6.1.1 User Interface Compliance

The STREAMS user interface standards are primarily specified by the IEEE and OpenGroup standards and take the form of the POSIX 2003 and Single UNIX Specification standards simultaneously released by the OpenGroup in conjunction with IEEE. The latest POSIX/IEEE/OpenGroup standard provide an XSI extension that includes the STREAMS user interface. For the most part, the OpenGroup XSI interface is completely compatible with the user interface described in the System V Release 4 Programmer's Manual – STREAMS, and where it does not, Stream head options are provided to select between the default OpenGroup XSI behaviour and the traditional SVR 4 behaviour.

Most of the XSI specifications of the OpenGroup describe the behaviour of the Stream head and the behaviour of specific STREAMS drivers or modules (such as pipes, FIFOs and terminals). Also described is the poll(2s) behaviour, generation of signals, and read(2s) and write(2s) behaviour as it applies to STREAMS character special devices.17

User interface compliance of the Linux Fast-STREAMS is tested with custom validation test suites that ship with the package. See Conformance Test Programs for more information on conformance and validation test suites.

6.1.2 Service Interface Compliance

The OpenGroup (now and in previous incarnations) have issued standardized service interface specifications as part of the Common Application Environment (CAE) specifications. These service interface specifications usually concern networking interfaces such as the Data Link Provider Interface (DLPI), the Network Provider Interface (NPI), the Transport Provider Interface (TPI), the X/Open Transport Interface (XTI) and the Sockets API. Although these standards impinge upon various networking add-on packages for Linux Fast-STREAMS, they do not impinge upon the base STREAMS package documented here. See the Installation and Reference Manual for the appropriate add-on package.

6.1.3 Kernel Interface Compliance

The STREAMS kernel interfaces, DDI/DKI and other facilities available to the STREAMS driver or module writer has not been subjected to formal standardization. For the most part, the descriptions that are present in the System V Programmer's Manual – STREAMS provide the most definitive ipso facto standard for STREAMS implementation. In addition to this, some STREAMS implementations have provided some enhancements or restrictions over the SVR 4 descriptions. Perhaps the most extensive embellishments have been provided for the Solaris implementation of STREAMS.

Linux Fast-STREAMS has been implemented to provide maximum compatibility over a wide range of STREAMS implementations based on SVR 4 and provides additional capabilities similar to those specific embellishments found in implementations such as Solaris through an add-on STREAMS Compatibility package.

The most delicate areas of compatibility across STREAMS implementations regard, not the use of STREAMS or DDI/DKI functions from within the STREAMS environment, but the invocation of STREAMS functions from outside the STREAMS environment. In particular, use of private locks and synchronization in the face of interrupts and external asynchronous callbacks is where implementations deviate the greatest. Linux Fast-STREAMS attempts to address these differences by providing a greater level of assurance and wider range of calling contexts for each of the STREAMS facilities.

Kernel interface compliance of the Linux Fast-STREAMS to SVR 4 specifications is tested with custom validation test suites, test modules and test drivers that ship with the package. See Conformance Test Programs for more information on conformance and validation test suites.

6.2 STREAMS Compatibility

Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of compatibility with other STREAMS implementation as listed below. Through the separate add-on STREAMS Compatibility package, source level compatibility is also provided.

— SVR 3.2
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a degree of operational compatibility with SVR 3.2 to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with SVR 3.2.
— SVR 4.2 ES/MP
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with SVR 4.2 ES/MP to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with SVR 4.2 ES/MP.
— Mentat Portable STREAMS
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with Mentat Portable STREAMS to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with Mentat Portable STREAMS.
— AIX 5L Version 5.1
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with AIX 5L Version 5.1 to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with AIX 5L Version 5.1.
— HP-UX 11.0i v2
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with HP-UX 11.0i v2 to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with HP-UX 11.0i v2.
— OSF/1 1.2/Digital UNIX/True 64
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with OSF/1 1.2/Digital UNIX to ease portability and common comprehension.
— UnixWare 7.1.3 (OpenUnix 8)
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with UnixWare 7.1.3 (OpenUnix 8) to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with UnixWare 7.1.3 (OpenUnix 8).
— Solaris 9/SunOS 5.9
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with Solaris 9/SunOS 5.9 to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with Solaris 9/SunOS 5.9.
— IRIX 6.5.17
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with IRIX 6.5.17 to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with IRIX 6.5.17.
— Mac OS 9 Open Transport
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with Mac OS 9 Open Transport to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with Mac OS 9 Open Transport.
— SUPER-UX
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with SUPER-UX to ease portability and common comprehension.
— UXP/V
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with UXP/V to ease portability and common comprehension.
— LiS-2.16.18 and LiS 2.18.0
Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a high degree of operational compatibility with LiS 2.16.18 and LiS 2.18.0 to ease portability and common comprehension. to ease portability and common comprehension. Specific kernel utilities are provided by the STREAMS Compatibility package to provide full source level compatibility with LiS 2.16.18 and LiS 2.18.0.

For additional details, see About This Manual.

7 Releases

This is the OpenSS7 Release of the Linux Fast-STREAMS core, tools, drivers and modules that implement the Linux Fast-STREAMS SVR 4.2 MP STREAMS utility for Linux. This package is intended as a replacement package for Linux STREAMS (LiS).

The following sections provide information on Linux Fast-STREAMS releases as well as compatibility information of OpenSS7 release to mainstream UNIX releases of the core, modules and drivers, as well as Linux kernel compatibility.

7.1 Prerequisites

The quickest and easiest way to ensure that all prerequisites are met is to download and install this package from within the OpenSS7 Master Package, openss7-0.9.2.G, instead of separately.

Prerequisites for the Linux Fast-STREAMS package are as follows:

  1. Linux distribution, somewhat Linux Standards Base compliant, with a 2.4 or 2.6 kernel and the appropriate tool chain for compiling out-of-tree kernel modules. Most recent Linux distributions are usable out of the box, but some development packages must be installed. For more information, see Compatibility.

    − A fairly LSB compliant GNU/Linux distribution.18
    − Linux 2.4 kernel (2.4.10 - 2.4.27), or
    − Linux 2.6 kernel (2.6.3 - 2.6.26);
    − glibc2 or better.
    − GNU groff (for man pages).19
    − GNU texinfo (for info files).
    − GNU bison and flex (for config programs).
    − net-snmp (for SNMP agents).20

If you need to rebuild the package from sources with modifications, you will need a larger GNU tool chain as described in See Downloading from CVS.

7.2 Compatibility

This section discusses compatibility with major prerequisites.

7.2.1 GNU/Linux Distributions

Linux Fast-STREAMS is compatible with the following Linux distributions:21

  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 3.4 (centos34) TBD
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 4.0 (centos4) TBD
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 4.92 (centos49) TBD
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 5.0 (centos5)
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 5.1 (centos51)
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 5.2 (centos52)
  • Debian 3.0r2 Woody (deb3.0) TBD
  • Debian 3.1r0a Sarge (deb3.1) TBD
  • Debian 4.0r1 Etch (deb4.0)
  • Debian 4.0r2 Etch (deb4.0)
  • Debian 4.0r3 Etch (deb4.0)
  • Fedora Core 1 (FC1) TBD
  • Fedora Core 2 (FC2) TBD
  • Fedora Core 3 (FC3) TBD
  • Fedora Core 4 (FC4) TBD
  • Fedora Core 5 (FC5) TBD
  • Fedora Core 6 (FC6) TBD
  • Fedora 7 (FC7)
  • Fedora 8 (FC8)
  • Fedora 9 (FC9)
  • Gentoo 2006.1 (untested) TBD
  • Gentoo 2007.1 (untested) TBD
  • Lineox 4.026 (LEL4) TBD
  • Lineox 4.053 (LEL4) TBD
  • Mandrakelinux 9.2 (MDK92) TBD
  • Mandrakelinux 10.0 (MDK100) TBD
  • Mandrakelinux 10.1 (MDK101) TBD
  • Mandriva Linux LE2005 (MDK102) TBD
  • Mandriva Linux LE2006 (MDK103) TBD
  • Mandriva One (untested)
  • RedHat Linux 7.2 (RH7)
  • RedHat Linux 7.3 (RH7)
  • RedHat Linux 8.0 (RH8) TBD
  • RedHat Linux 9 (RH9) TBD
  • RedHat Enterprise Linux 3.0 (EL3) TBD
  • RedHat Enterprise Linux 4 (EL4)
  • RedHat Enterprise Linux 5 (EL5)
  • SuSE 8.0 Professional (SuSE8.0) TBD
  • SuSE 9.1 Personal (SuSE9.1) TBD
  • SuSE 9.2 Professional (SuSE9.2) TBD
  • SuSE OpenSuSE (SuSEOSS) TBD
  • SuSE 10.0 (SuSE10.0) TBD
  • SuSE 10.1 (SuSE10.1) TBD
  • SuSE 10.2 (SuSE10.2) TBD
  • SuSE 10.3 (SuSE10.3) TBD
  • SuSE 11.0 (SuSE11.0)
  • SLES 9 (SLES9) TBD
  • SLES 9 SP2 (SLES9) TBD
  • SLES 9 SP3 (SLES9) TBD
  • SLES 10 (SLES10)
  • Ubuntu 5.10 (ubu5.10) TBD
  • Ubuntu 6.03 LTS (ubu6.03) TBD
  • Ubuntu 6.10 (ubu6.10) TBD
  • Ubuntu 7.04 (ubu7.04) TBD
  • Ubuntu 7.10 (ubu7.10)
  • Ubuntu 8.04 (ubu8.04)
  • WhiteBox Enterprise Linux 3.0 (WBEL3) TBD
  • WhiteBox Enterprise Linux 4 (WBEL4) TBD

When installing from the tarball (see Installing the Tar Ball), this distribution is probably compatible with a much broader array of distributions than those listed above. These are the distributions against which the current maintainer creates and tests builds.

7.2.2 Kernel

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package compiles as a Linux kernel module. It is not necessary to patch the Linux kernel to build or use the package.22 Nor do you have to recompile your kernel to build or use the package. OpenSS7 packages use autoconf scripts to adapt the package source to your existing kernel. The package builds and runs nicely against production kernels from the distributions listed above. Rather than relying on kernel versions, the autoconf scripts interrogate the kernel for specific features and variants to better adapt to distribution production kernels that have had patches applied over the official kernel.org sources.

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package is compatible with 2.4 kernel series after 2.4.10 and has been tested up to and including 2.4.27. It has been tested from 2.6.3 up to and including 2.6.26 (with Fedora 9, openSUSE 11.0 and Ubuntu 8.04 patchsets). Please note that your mileage may vary if you use a kernel more recent than 2.6.26.4: it is difficult to anticipate changes that kernel developers will make in the future. Many kernels in the 2.6 series now vary widely by release version and if you encounter problems, try a kernel within the supported series.

UP validation testing for kernels is performed on all supported architectures. SMP validation testing was initially performed on UP machines, as well as on an Intel 3.0GHz Pentium IV 630 with HyperThreading enabled (2x). Because HyperThreading is not as independent as multiple CPUs, SMP validation testing was limited. Current releases have been tested on dual 1.8GHz Xeon HP servers (2x) as well as dual quad-core SunFire (8x) servers.

It should be noted that, while the packages will configure, build and install against XEN kernels, that problems running validation test suites against XEN kernels has been reported. XEN kernels are explicitly not supported. This may change at some point in the future if someone really requires running OpenSS7 under a XEN kernel.

7.2.3 Architectures

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package compiles and installs on a wide range of architectures. Although it is believed that the package will work on all architectures supported by the Linux kernel being used, validation testing has only been performed with the following architectures:

  • ix86
  • x86_64
  • ppc (MPC 860)
  • ppc64

32-bit compatibility validation testing is performed on all 64-bit architectures supporting 32-bit compatibility. If you would like to validate an OpenSS7 package on a specific machine architecture, you are welcome to sponsor the project with a test machine.

7.2.4 Linux STREAMS

Linux Fast-STREAMS provides a suitable replacement for the (now deprecated) Linux STREAMS (LiS) 2.18.0 package formerly maintained by Dave Goethe of GCOM.

7.3 Release Notes

The sections that follow provide information on OpenSS7 releases of the Linux Fast-STREAMS package.

Major changes for release streams-0.9.2.4

This is the thirteenth OpenSS7 Project release of Linux Fast-STREAMS. LiS was fully deprecated as of the previous release and Linux Fast-STREAMS is the only STREAMS package contained in the OpenSS7 Master Package (since openss7-0.9.2.D).

This release is a stable, production grade release and is part of the OpenSS7 Master Package (openss7-0.9.2.G). The release includes maintenance support for recent distributions and tool chain, but also includes some performance and feature upgrades and inspection bug fixes. It deprecates previous releases. Please upgrade before reporting bugs on previous releases.

This release is primarily a maintenance release.

Major features since the last public release are as follows:

  • Minor documentation corrections.
  • Kernel module license made explicit "GPL v2". And then changed back to "GPL".
  • License upgrade to AGPL Version 3.
  • Modifications to build under Fedora2.6.22.5-49’ kernel. These changes also support ‘2.6.22.9-91.fc7’ kernel.
  • Added SNMP MIBs and AgentX sub-agent for STREAMS. This is a rather significant addition to Linux Fast-STREAMS which permits remote management of the entire STREAMS subsystem using SNMP. The agent is compatable with net-snmp and ucd-snmp back to ucd-snmp 4.2.5. This includes updates to the build process to support net-snmp packages all the way back to RedHat 7.2.
  • Added the ability for the sc(4) STREAMS Configuration module to allow tuning STREAMS module info parameters and collect general purpose STREAMS statistics. Also, the module generates signals (‘SIGPOLL’) when STREAMS configuration changes. See sc(4) for more information.

    Also added a STREAMS configuration change notification registration function for use by sc(4). See streams_notify(9), streams_register_notifier(9) and streams_unregister_notifier(9) for more information.

  • Ability to strap out major documentation build and installation primarily for embedded targets.
  • Improvements to common build process for embedded and cross-compile targets.
  • Support for flex 2.5.33 in maintainer mode.
  • Higher performance and updated performance paper.
  • Fixed two POSIX compilance quirks and one soft-lockup when using M_READ. See BUGS in the release for more information.
  • Added workaround for use of crash(8).
  • Modifications to build under Fedora2.6.25-45.fc9’ and ‘2.6.26.5-45.fc9’ kernels.
  • Updated tool chain to m4-1.4.12, autoconf-2.63 and texinfo-4.13.
  • Conversion of RPM spec files to common approach for major subpackages.
  • Updated references database for manual pages and roff documents.
  • Added test case 3.1.11.4 and modified test cases 3.2.1, 3.5.1 and 3.6.1 for the test-streams tests suite executable to test bug fixes and avoid regressions. See bug #016 and #017 in BUGS.
  • Build system now builds yum(8) repositories for RPMs and apt-get(8) repositories for DEBs. Installation documentation has been updated to include details of repository install sourcesref.
  • Added MODULE_VERSION to all modules and drivers.

This is a public stable production grade release of the package: it deprecates previous releases. Please upgrade to the current release before reporting bugs.

As with other OpenSS7 releases, this release configures, compiles, installs and builds RPMs and DEBs for a wide range of Linux 2.4 and 2.6 RPM- and DPKG-based distributions, and can be used on production kernels without patching or recompiling the kernel.

This package is publicly released under the GNU Affero General Public License Version 3. The release is available as an autoconf tarball, SRPM, DSC, and set of binary RPMs and DEBs. See the downloads page for the autoconf tarballs, SRPMs and DSCs. For tarballs, SRPMs, DSCs and binary RPMs and DEBs, see the streams package page.

See http://www.openss7.org/codefiles/streams-0.9.2.4/ChangeLog and http://www.openss7.org/codefiles/streams-0.9.2.4/NEWS in the release for more information. Also, see the STREAMS.pdf manual in the release (also in html http://www.openss7.org/STREAMS_manual.html).

For the news release, see http://www.openss7.org/rel20081029_K.html.

Major changes for release streams-0.9.2.3

This is the twelveth OpenSS7 Project release of Linux Fast-STREAMS. LiS was fully deprecated as of the previous release and Linux Fast-STREAMS is the only STREAMS package contained in the OpenSS7 Master Package (since openss7-0.9.2.D).

This release is a stable, production grade release. The release includes maintenance support for recent distributions and tool chain, but also includes some performance and feature upgrades and inspection bug fixes.

Major features since the last public release are as follows:

  • Support build on openSUSE 10.2.
  • Support build on Fedora 7 and 2.6.21 kernel.
  • The strace(8), strerr(8) utilities and log(4) driver have had some corrections. The STREAMS trace logger is now an excellent way for trace logging of fielded production drivers. A number of OpenSS7 drivers have already been converted to use this facility.
  • Support build on CentOS 5.0 (RHEL5).
  • Support build on Ubuntu 7.04.
  • Significant rework of the Stream head and both enabling and backenabling utilities. Handling of enabling flags QWANTR and QWANTW were not being performed quite properly. Also, service procedures for the read side stream head queue was added to defer wakeups when possible. The result is very significant performance improvements (like it wasn't fast enough already).

    STREAMS-based pipes in this package now perform 2 to 5 times (yes %200 to %500) faster than the old legacy 4.1BSD/SVR4 Linux pipes currently in the kernel: perhaps we should shout the "Fast" too.

    The impact of these performance changes is that Linux Fast-STREAMS now runs faster and looser on SMP systems: if your drivers have race conditions they will likely be exacerbated by this version.

  • Corrected a few bugs. See BUGS in the release for more information.
  • Significant rework of STREAMS syncrhonization. OSF/1-Mentat style syncrhonization levels, Solaris style perimeters, and SVR 4.2 style load refusal are fully supported. Some idiosynchracies of AIX, HP-UX, MacOT and VxWorks is also supported.
  • Updated to gettext 0.16.1.
  • Changes to support build on 2.6.20-1.2307.fc5 and 2.6.20-1.2933.fc6 kernel.
  • Supports build on Fedora Core 6.
  • Support for recent distributions and tool chains.

Major changes for release streams-0.9.2.2

This is the eleventh OpenSS7 Project release of Linux Fast-STREAMS. LiS was fully deprecated as of the previous release and Linux Fast-STREAMS is now the only STREAMS package contained in the OpenSS7 Master Package (since openss7-0.9.2.D).

This release is a stable, production grade release for Linux Fast-STREAMS. The release is primarily a maintenance release to support recent distributions and tool chain.

Major features since the last public release are as follows:

  • Fix for clone open failure locking problems, demand loading of clone minors, an error in clone minor device deregistration, and an error in queue syncrhornization. See http://www.openss7.org/codefiles/streams-0.9.2.4/BUGS in the release for more information.
  • Added feature to perform automatic reference counting of modules for the esballoc(9) free routines on Linux 2.6 kernels. See new esballoc(9).
  • Added versions to all exported symbols. Made LFS unique functions GPL export.
  • Improvements to the common build environment with better support for standalone package builds on 2.4 kernels.
  • Support for autoconf 2.61, automake 1.10 and gettext 0.16.
  • Support for Ubuntu 6.10 distribution and bug fixes for i386 kernels.

Major changes for release streams-0.9.2.1

This is the tenth OpenSS7 Project release of Linux Fast-STREAMS. The release number has been moved from the 0.9a sequence to 0.9.2 to indicate that the package has moved to a production grade. LiS has been fully deprecated by this release and Linux Fast-STREAMS is now the only STREAMS package contained in the OpenSS7 Master Package (openss7-0.9.2.D).

This release is a stable, production grade release for Linux Fast-STREAMS. The release is primarily a maintenance release. Some minor defect corrections have been applied, but no significant development has occurred. The release provides the following enhancements and fixes:

  • Testing of, and a few bug corrections to, the strlog() feature. Trace and error logging working well.
  • Support for most recent 2.6.18 kernels (including Fedora Core 5 with inode diet patch set).
  • The package now builds a replacement libLiS and libpLiS library so that user applications written to work with LiS-2.18.1 through LiS-2.18.7 do no need to be recompiled. Added versions to all library symbols in all three libraries.
  • Minor bug fixes to STREAMS library. isastream(3) and fattach(3) must not contain an asynchronous thread cancellation point, but they could. Added asynchronous thread cancellation protection to these functions to remove any thread cancellation points.
  • Now builds 32-bit compatibility libraries, as well, and tests them against 64-bit kernel modules and drivers. The ‘make installcheck’ target will now automatically test both 64-bit native and 32-bit compatibility versions, one after the other, on 64-bit platforms.
  • Many documentation updates for all OpenSS7 packages. Automated release file generation making for vastly improved and timely text documentation present in the release directory.
  • Dropped support for LiS.
  • Updated init scripts for proper addition and removal of modules.
  • Start assigning majors at major device number 231 instead of major device number 230. Assign major device number 230 explicitly to the clone device. Package will now support extended ranges of minor devices on 2.6 kernels under Linux Fast-STREAMS only. streams now supports expanded addressable minor device numbers, permitting 2^16 addressable minor devices per major device number on 2.6 kernels: LiS cannot support this change.
  • Better detection of SUSE distributions, release numbers and SLES distributions: support for additional SuSE distributions on ix86 as well as x86_64. Added distribution support includes SLES 9, SLES 9 SP2, SLES 9 SP3, SLES 10, SuSE 10.1.
  • Improved compiler flag generation and optimizations for recent gcc compilers and some idiosyncratic behaviour for some distributions (primarily SUSE).
  • Optimized compilation is now available also for user level programs in addition to kernel programs. Added new --with-optimize option to configure to accomplish this.
  • Added --disable-devel configure option to suppress building and installing development environment. This feature is for embedded or pure runtime targets that do not need the development environment (static libraries, manual pages, documentation).
  • Added send-pr script for automatic problem report generation.
  • The package will now build doxygen(1) html documentation with the 'doxy' make target. See 'make help' or README-make in the distribution for more information.

Major changes for release streams-0.7a.6.rc3

Third release candidate.

  • Minor bug fixes to STREAMS library. isastream(3) and fattach(3) must not contain an asynchronous thread cancellation point, but they could. Added asynchronous thread cancellation protection to these functions to remove any thread cancellation points.
  • The package will now build doxygen(1) html documentation with the 'doxy' make target. See 'make help' or README-make in the distribution for more information.
  • Now builds 32-bit compatibility libraries and tests them against 64-bit kernel modules and drivers. The ‘make installcheck’ target will now automatically test both 64-bit native and 32-bit compatibility versions, one after the other, on 64-bit platforms.
  • Added versions to all library symbols.
  • Automated release file generation making for vastly improved and timely text documentation present in the release directory.
  • Many documentation updates for all OpenSS7 packages.
  • This release candidate includes the changes made to the strsctp drivers at the 2006 SCTP Interop at the University of British Columbia. This version was interoperability tested with all implementations present.
  • This release candidate provides support for additional SuSE distributions on ix86 as well as x86_64. Added distribution support includes SLES 9, SLES 9 SP2, SLES 9 SP3, SLES 10, SuSE 10.1.
  • Better detection of SUSE distributions, release numbers and SLES distributions.
  • Optimized compilation is now available also for user level programs in addition to kernel programs. Added new --with-optimize option to configure to accomplish this.
  • Improved compiler flag generation and optimizations for recent gcc compilers and some idiosyncratic behaviour for some distributions (primarily SUSE):

    Remove -fno-reorder-blocks and -fno-reorder-functions options added by some recent 2.6 Makefiles for ‘x86_64’ architecture: it impedes performance optimizations.
    Remove -ffunction-sections option added by some recent 2.6 Makefiles for ‘x86_64’ architecture: this is an insane option and should never have been used.
    Add -ffreestanding that some older 2.6 Makefiles (such as that with SLES 9 2.6.5 kernel) neglect to add to the gcc command line.
    SLES 10 expands the directory before autoconf.h on the gcc command line for some reason. configure script watches out for this now.
  • Updated init scripts for proper addition and removal of modules.
  • Start assigning majors at major device number 231 instead of major device number 230. Assign major device number 230 explicitly to the clone device.
  • streams now supports expanded addressable minor device numbers, permitting 2^16 addressable minor devices per major device number on 2.6 kernels: LiS cannot support this change.

This release is an internal release candidate and was not publicly released.

Major changes for release streams-0.7a.6.rc2

Second release candidate.

This release candidate also contains the results of performance testing of the new second generation UDP driver (implemented completely in STREAMS instead of using an internal socket).

This release candidate also contains support for SuSE 10.1.

This release is an internal release candidate and was not publicly released.

Major changes for release streams-0.7a.6rc1

Release candidate for Mark Fugate.

Added ‘--enable-develconfigure option for embedded targets. Added send-pr script for automatic problem report generation.

This release is an internal release candidate and was not publicly released.

Major changes for release streams-0.7a.5

This release is primarily to support additional compilers (gcc 4.0.2), architectures (x86_64, SMP, 32-bit compatibility), recent Linux distributions (EL4, SuSE 10, LE2006, OpenSuSE) and kernels (2.6.15).

  • Changes to wait queues. Split single wait queue into four independent wait queues. Reworked wait queues for both old style (2.4) and new style (2.6) semantics.
  • Changes to satisfy gcc 4.0.2 compiler.
  • Corrected build flags for Gentoo and 2.6.15 kernels as reported on mailing list. Build and run tested on FC4 i686 and x86_64 kernels based on 2.6.15.
  • Corrections for and testing of 64-bit clean compile and test runs on x86_64 architecture. Some bug corrections resulting from gcc 4.0.2 compiler warnings.
  • Initial corrections for and testing of SMP operation on Intel 630 Hyper-Threaded SMP on x86_64. This package should now run well on N-way Xeons even with Hyper-Threading enabled.
  • Corrections and validation of 32-bit compatibility over 64-bit on x86_64. Should apply well to other 64-bit architectures as well.

This is a public beta test release of the package.

Major changes for release streams-0.7a.4

This is primarily a bug fixes release and corrections resulting from testing.

Major changes for release streams-0.7a.3

With this release version numbers were changed to reflect an upstream version only to be consistent with other OpenSS7 package releases. All RPM release numbers will be ‘-1$(PACKAGE_RPMEXTRA)’ and all Debian release numbers will be ‘_0’. If you wish to apply patches and release the package, please bump up the release number and apply a suitable release suffix for your organization. We leave Debian release number ‘_1’ reserved for your use, so you can still bundle the source in the .dsc file.

Major changes for this release include build against Linux 2.6 kernels and popular distributions based on the 2.6 kernel as well as wider distribution support.

This was an internal beta test release and was not released publicly.

Major changes for release streams-0.7a-3

Updates to common build process. Documentation updates.

This was an internal alpha test release and was not released publicly.

Major changes for release streams-0.7a-2

Removed all XTI/TLI and Linux networking code, headers and documentation from streams distribution and set epoch at 0. Linux networking code has been migrated to the strxnet, strinet and strsctp packages. The purpose for doing this was to allow the Linux networking to build against Linux Fast-STREAMS as well as Linux STREAMS and is a preparation for phasing out LiS and phasing in LfS.

This was an internal alpha test release and was not released publicly.

Initial release streams-0.7a-1

This is the initial release of the Linux Fast-STREAMS package for Linux. This is intended as a high-performance, production replacement for Linux STREAMS (LiS). Linux Fast-STREAMS has the following features:

  • optimized for Linux kernels.
  • prepared for mainstream Linux kernel adoption.
  • lindented and follows kernel coding practises.
  • compatibility modes for AIX, HPUX, OSF, Solaris, UnixWare, SVR 4.2 and LiS.
  • supports all major SVR4.2 variants.
  • licensed under GPL with commercial licensing available.
  • supports full SVR 4.2 MP synchronization models.
  • runs at SoftIRQ.
  • provides common SVR 4.2 system tunable parameters and sysctls.
  • provides /proc file system access for debugging and performance tuning.
  • provides a full set of common STREAMS modules and drivers.
  • provides full name-streams device and shadow special file system support.

This was an internal alpha test release and was not released publicly.

7.4 Maturity

The OpenSS7 Project adheres to the following release philosophy:

  • pre-alpha release
  • alpha release
  • beta release
  • gamma release
  • production release
  • unstable release

7.4.1 Pre-Alpha Releases

Pre-alpha releases are releases that have received no testing whatsoever. Code in the release is not even known to configure or compile. The purpose of a pre-alpha release is to make code and documentation available for inspection only, and to solicit comments on the design approach or other characteristics of the software package.

Pre-alpha release packages ship containing warnings recommending that the user not even execute the contained code.

7.4.2 Alpha Releases

Alpha releases are releases that have received little to no testing, or that have been tested and contains known bugs or defects that make the package unsuitable even for testing. The purpose for an alpha release are the same as for the pre-alpha release, with the additional purpose that it is an early release of partially functional code that has problems that an external developer might be willing to fix themselves and contribute back to the project.

Alpha release packages ship containing warnings that executing the code can crash machines and might possibly do damage to systems upon which it is executed.

7.4.3 Beta Releases

Beta releases are releases that have received some testing, but the testing to date is not exhaustive. Beta release packages do not ship with known defects. All known defects are resolved before distribution; however, as exhaustive testing has not been performed, unknown defects may exist. The purpose for a beta release is to provide a baseline for other organizations to participate in the rigorous testing of the package.

Beta release packages ship containing warnings that the package has not been exhaustively tested and that the package may cause systems to crash. Suitability of software in this category for production use is not advised by the project; however, as always, is at the discretion of the user of the software.

7.4.4 Gamma Releases

Gamma releases are releases that have received exhaustive testing within the project, but external testing has been minimal. Gamma release packages do not ship with known defects. As exhaustive internal testing has been performed, unknown defects should be few. Please remember that there is NO WARRANTY on public release packages.

Gamma release packages typically resolve problems in previous beta releases, and might not have had full regression testing performed. Suitability of software in this category for production use is at the discretion of the user of the software. The OpenSS7 Project recommends that the complete validation test suites provided with the package be performed and pass on target systems before considering production use.

7.4.5 Production Releases

Production releases are releases that have received exhaustive testing within the project and validated on specific distributions and architectures. Production release packages do not ship with known defects. Please remember that there is NO WARRANTY on public release packages.

Production packages ship containing a list of validated distributions and architectures. Full regression testing of any maintenance changes is performed. Suitability of software in this category for production use on the specified target distributions and architectures is at the discretion of the user. It should not be necessary to preform validation tests on the set of supported target systems before considering production use.

7.4.6 Unstable Releases

Unstable releases are releases that have received extensive testing within the project and validated on a a wide range of distributions and architectures; however, is has tested unstable and found to be suffering from critical problems and issues that cannot be resolved. Maintenance of the package has proved impossible. Unstable release packages ship with known defects (and loud warnings). Suitability of software in this category for production use is at the discretion of the user of the software. The OpenSS7 Project recommends that the problems and issues be closely examined before this software is used even in a non-production environment. Each failing test scenario should be completely avoided by the application. OpenSS7 beta software is more stable that software in this category.

7.5 Bugs

7.5.1 Defect Notices

Linux Fast-STREAMS could possibly contain unknown defects. This is a production release. Nevertheless, some remaining unknown defects could possibly be harmful. Validation testing has been performed by the OpenSS7 Project and external entities on this software for the set of systems listed in the release notes. Nevertheless, the software might still fail to configure or compile on other systems. The OpenSS7 Project recommends that you validate this software for your target system before using this software. Use at your own risk. Remember that there is NO WARRANTY.23

This software is production software. As such, it is stable on validated systems but might still crash your kernel in unique circumstances. Installation of the software on a non-validated distribution might mangle your header files or Linux distribution in such a way as to make it unusable. Crashes could possibly lock your system and rebooting the system might not repair the problem. You can possibly lose all the data on your system. Because this software stands a chance of crashing your kernel, the resulting unstable system could possibly destroy computer hardware or peripherals making them unusable. You might void the warranty on any system on which you run this software. YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED.

7.5.2 Known Defects

With the exception of packages not originally created by the OpenSS7 Project, the OpenSS7 Project software does not ship with known bugs in any release stage except pre-alpha. Linux Fast-STREAMS had no known bugs at the time of release.

7.5.3 Defect History

This section contains historical bugs that were encountered during development and their resolutions. This list serves two purposes:

  1. It captures bugs encountered between releases during development that could possibly reoccur (and the Moon is made of blue cheese). It therefore provides a place for users to look if they encounter a problem.
  2. It provides a low overhead bug list between releases for developers to use as a TODO list.
Bugs
025. 2008-10-17T05:57:29+0000
putnext(q, mp)’ was checking whether procedures had been turned off on queue ‘q’. This was not correct as it is only the ‘q->q_next’ put procedure that would be executed. It should only check procedures on ‘q->q_next’.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

024. 2008-10-11T19:36:41+0000
A list delete corruption bug in the STREAMS driver and module lookup functions (e.g. __cdrv_lookup) was discovered by the list debugging in the FC9 kernel.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

023. 2008-10-11T19:36:23+0000
Not really a bug, but newer (2.6.25) kernels no longer permit registration of binary identifiers for sysctls (i.e. ctl_name). The proc filesystem entries (i.e. procname) are still permitted and ctl_name should be set to zero for these kernels. Added a check for the existence of symbol sysctl_check_table() to identify when binary registration is forbidden. Another related problem is that when binary registration of system controls is not possible, sysctl(2) becomes worthless. Unfortunately, the STREAMS MIB agent was written to use sysctl(2) and needs to be rewritten to use the /proc/sys filesystem instead ala sysctl(8).

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

022. 2008-10-07T18:40:25+0000
When overriding 32-bit compatability on input-output controls conflicting from the CDROM block device with STREAMS input-output controls, the override was not properly passing CDROM input-output controls through due to a missing break statement in the override loop. This bug affected pre-2.6.11 kernels, likely manifesting itself in a non-function CDROM device while STREAMS was loaded. Bug reported and one-line fix provided by Sylvain Chouleur for DGAC.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

021. 2008-08-01T22:32:08+0000
When flushing queues the backenable bits were not being initialized to zero in __flushq(), resulting in back-enabling of bands (or the normal queue) was being performed depending on the uninitialized values in the backenable bit array. This only affected I_SETSIG signals for SWRNORM and SWBAND, and the only when flushing queues. Fix properly initializes the backenable array.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

020. 2008-07-31T04:59:41+0000
Not really a bug (for STREAMS), but when the streams.ko kernel module is loaded, the crash(8) debugger will not debug a running kernel because it finds the runqueues() exported function in the streams.ko module instead of the the static one from the kernel. This has been temporarily renamed by macro to srunqueues() (notice the leading ‘s’) until crash(8) learns to do the right thing and check that the symbol it looks up comes from the kernel instead of a kernel module.

*workaround* in streams-0.9.2.4

019. 2008-07-25T22:41:47+0000
When M_READ was being issued by the Stream Head downstream an srlock() imbalance in strsendmread() was causing soft-lockups on close for recent read-write lock implementations on CentOS 5.2 for ‘x86_64’.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

018. 2008-07-25T01:15:26+0000
Previous fix didn't work too good: returning [EAGAIN] when hung-up on getmsg(2), getpmsg(2), read(2), readv(2) instead of 0 and terminal end of file. This caused a regression on four or five other test cases.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

017. 2008-04-10T15:17:30+0000
When M_DATA is sent upstream followed by M_HANGUP, read(2s) is returning zero (0) and not permitting the data associated with the M_DATA to be read. This is a bug per documentation. read(2s) should operate as normal following a hangup until all data is read and then return zero (0).

The difficulty is that when waking up from a read sleep or when entering read the hangup condition was generating an internal [ESTRPIPE] error. This was altered so that [ESTRPIPE] is only returned during the hangup condition after the read queue has been tested and the caller is about to sleep on read.

Test cases 3.2.1, 3.5.1 and 3.6.1 in the test-streams test suite executable were altered to validate the fix for this case and curtail regressions.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

016. 2007-11-14T17:23:57+0000
Read is blocking when data has been read, O_NONBLOCK and O_NDELAY unset, RFILL unset, in non-SVR4 mode. This violates POSIX specifications.

Test case 3.1.11.4 in the test-streams test suite executable was generated to validate the fix for this case and to curtail regressions.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

015. 2007-11-14T17:19:01+0000
Dynamic allocation of major device numbers is not working on recent 2.6 kernels. Someone slipped some code in the kernel to have register_chrdev() allocate from major 255 down (again). Changed code to allocate modid according to our own rules and then request the same for a major device number. This also ensures that module ID and major are the same.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.4

014. 2007-05-17T21:48:24+0000
The dupb(9) utility had an obnoxious bug where it permitted the db_ref count to wrap to zero, causing buffer allocation and freeing problems. This was very difficult to debug. dupb(9) now fails if the reference count has reached 255. When dupb(9) fails, the user should check if the reference count has reached 255, and if it has, attempt a deep copyb(9) instead. At some point it might be useful to have STREAMS do the deep copy automatically. This was discovered in strsctp loopback tests where message blocks are rapidly duplicated for retransmission.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.3

013. 2007-05-17T21:48:06+0000
The log driver, strace, strerr and strclean utilities had some bugs. The strsctp driver now makes extensive use of strlog(9) trace and error logging and the log driver and utilities have been corrected. These facilities are now production grade.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.3

012. 2007-04-13T01:47:30+0000
It appears that Ubuntu 6.10 has a rather broken implementation of the LSB install_init that has been inherited from Debian (a python script, none the less). This implementation refuses to properly install a disabled service (one with an empty or missing Default-Start: tag), but, rather invokes updated-rc.d in such a way that the init script is started at runlevels ‘2 3 4 5’ instead. This was causing problems with the strace and strerr services which are normally installed disabled.

This uncovered the fact that the Debian-style init scripts were not working anyway. The scripts have been fixed and the strace and strerr utilities now default to enabled.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.3

011. 2007-04-10T10:56:42+0000
The strbcflag flag was never being cleared, causing infinite looping of the scheduler once the maximum number of buffers was reached. This also revealed a problem that bufcalls were being run unncecessarily (when strbcwait was set, instead of only when strbcflag was set).

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.3

010. 2007-04-10T10:55:29+0000
The stream event sequence number was wrapping and becoming larger than the event mask resulting in inability to cancel buffer callbacks and timeouts.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.3

009. 2007-04-02T11:57:35+0000
ldl was using an incorrect MKDEV command, but when the Stream head attempted to redirect the open to the new (mangled) major device number, it properly returned ENXIO, but did not release a reference to the module. Need to check code paths for this to see where the reference needed to be released.

*known bug*

008. 2007-03-31T05:33:29-0600
When loosening SMP locking, found a bug in the QWANTR handling in getq() and back-enabling in flushq() and flushband(). Both of these were generating false back-enables. The getq() was generating a lot of false back-enables. Whenever getq() found an empty queue it was not only setting QWANTR, but it was back-enabling the queue. The result is that if service procedures are used exclusively (that is, qi_put() always does a putq()), getq() would generate a false back-enable for each message. Also, the enabled queue would generate another false back-enable. Significant performance gains should be noticed.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.3

007. 2007-03-16T17:33:20-0600
Jérémy Compostella pointed out an error in strallocpmsg() where it was always assigining M_PCPROTO to messages created with I_FDINSERT.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.3

006. 2007-03-14T23:48:26-0600
There appears to be an inode lock imbalance that occurred for several clone error paths in stropen. If the returned major device number does not correspond to a driver, or an snode cannot be acquired for the new entry and the stream head reparented.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.2

005. 2007-03-07T15:53:06-0700
Demand loading of kernel modules for clone devices opened, for example, as /dev/streams/clone/mux was requesting module streams-clone-mux and /dev/streams/clone/mux but was not requesting streams-mux or /dev/streams/mux and the modules were failing to demand load.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.2

004. 2007-02-26T08:25:09-0700
Jérémy Compostella pointed out error in clone.c. When an automatic clone minor device was unregistered, it was unregistering the modid instead of the major number. This was not noticed because all OpenSS7 drivers have the same modid as major number (strconf does this automatically).

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.2

003. 2007-02-26T08:25:09-0700
Jérémy Compostella pointed out syntax error in strsched.c that kept synqs from compiling properly.

*fixed* in streams-0.9.2.2

002. 2006-09-24T20:02:00+0000
Discovered asynchronous thread cancellation inconsistencies in libLiS libpLiS by inspection during documentation. isastream(2), fattach(2) were not performing proper asynchronous thread cancellation suppression so that these function contained a cancellation point when the should not.

*fixed* in streams-0.7a.6.rc3

001. 2006-07-05T21:54:49+0000
Fedora Core 5 reports a rwlock bug during udp module unloading as follows:
          BUG: rwlock wrong CPU on CPU#0, rmmod/7515
          Call Trace:
            {rwlock_bug+100}
            {_raw_write_unlock+88}
            {:streams:unregister_strnod+211}
            {:streams:unregister_clone+64}
            {:streams:unregister_strdev+24}
            {:streams_udp:udpterminate+26}
            {sys_delete_module+406}
            {system_call+126}

It appears that unregister_strnod() is scheduling while holding a write lock on cdevsw_lock. This is probably in iput() called within cmin_del.

*fixed* in streams-0.7a.6.rc2

There were a number of places where sleeping functions were called with spin-locks held, causing the CPU awaking from the sleep to sometimes be different from the CPU that took the lock. This was buggy, so I reworked all of these cdev and fmod sections to handle spin locks properly. FC5/SMP on HT no longer reports these bugs.

7.6 Schedule

Current Plan

There are not many things left to be done on the production Linux Fast-STREAMS package. As of the streams-0.9.3 release, performance modifications are complete. The package now exhibits performance on STREAMS-based pipes and TPI drivers that is significantly (factor of 2 or more) superior to that experienced by legacy Linux facilities.

Therefore, the current plan for Linux Fast-STREAMS is largely a maintenance plan. Items on the todo list, below, will be picked up as time permits. The OpenSS7 Project intends to release regularly new versions of Linux Fast-STREAMS that build and validate against upcoming releases of the supported Linux Distributions available from major distributors and upcoming releases of the Linux kernel, both mainline and as patched by major distributors. This release schedule is approximately every 3 to 6 months. More recent corrections and support for new distributions and kernels can be obtained by sponsoring the OpenSS7 Project and obtaining access to the live CVS repository (also available as a git repository).

One development activity in the works for Linux Fast-STREAMS is to provide integral support for more embedded cross-platform development systems such as the Denx ELDK, as well a existing and emerging RT kernels such as Montavista and the upcoming SuSE and RedHat RT kernels. This is a significant undertaking and will only be embarked upon when the OpenSS7 Project is given free access to these RT kernels and distributions.

Things to Do
  • Support for RT kernels. This is a little more than just having the STREAMS scheduler run as a non-RT process kernel thread, which it does now, and which is trivial. (The existing package should compile and run against these kernels with minor modification in this event.)

    More to the point is working the light-weight STREAMS scheduler and service procedures into a prioritized scheme where service procedures run as real-time, yet pre-emptable tasks. In contrast to the current scheme, it is likely that the approach would be to either spawn multiple kernel threads for the STREAMS scheduler at different priorities, or to alter the priority of the STREAMS scheduler in response to the scheduling of specific queues at specific priorities. A design is not really possible until the intricacies of upcoming RT kernels are discovered.

    TODO:
    Provide support for RT kernels.
  • Per cpu data:- I am still using the older approach of using cache line aligned arrays for per-cpu data. This, of course, does not fully utilize NUMA architectures. For NUMA architectures we need to use the per-cpu utilities provided by the 2.6 kernel. I haven't touched converting this yet.

    Also, there are several NUMA supporting STREAMS utility functions (allocb_node, etc.) that need to be supported yet.

    TODO:
    Convert cacheline aligned arrays to NUMA per-cpu data on 2.6 kernels. Complete NUMA supporting STREAMS facilities.
  • Split include/sys/streams/stropts.h by architecture. There is conflicting numbering on the standard STREAMS input-output controls:

    I_SWROPT(7) I_GWROPT(7) I_LIST(7)
    I_FLUSHBAND(7) I_CKBAND(7) I_GETBAND(7)
    I_ATMARK(7) I_SETCLTIME(7) I_GETCLTIME(7)
    I_CANPUT(7)

    System V Release 4 UNIX® vendors use one set and OSF UNIX® vendors use another. Namely HP-UX, OSF/1.2, AIX, Mac OpenTransport use OSF numbering, whereas IRIX, Solaris, UnixWare and others use SVR4 numbering. So, for HPPA, Alpha, PowerPC, we should use the OSF numbering.

    I know that it is a fall-back to the SVR4 way of separating architectural differences by UNIX vendor (if it is HPPA, it must be sold by HP and it must be HP-UX running on it, for example), but even the Linux kernel is victim to this (many ioctls and some errno numbering is split this way). It is completely entrenched in GNU autoconf's config.guess.

    TODO:
    Split include/sys/streams/stropts.h by processor architecture.
  • A similar numbering mismatch occurs for many of the message block types.
    TODO:
    Split include/sys/streams/streams.h by processor architecture.
  • Implement I_EGETSIG(7) and I_ESETSIG(7). These are Solaris enhanced version of the I_GETSIG(7) and I_SETSIG(7) STREAMS input-output controls. The difficulty with their implementation is that the entire signal handling setup inside the Stream head code is geared toward the calling process and needs to be adjusted to be general enough for any process or process group. Until then, Linux file asynchronous I/O is supported.
    PARTLY DONE:
    Wrote the manual pages and added them to the build. Placed function skeletons that return [EOPNOTSUPP] for these functions in the Stream head.
    TODO:
    Implement I_EGETSIG(7) and I_ESETSIG(7).
  • It is possible on 2.6 kernels to use the ability to determine the module that owns a function to perform module reference counting for esballoc(9) callback functions. That is, when esballoc(9) (and friends) are called, the module owning the callback function has its module reference count incremented. When the block is freed and the callback function returns, the module has its module reference count decremented. The pertinent kernel function is module_text_address() that returns the module in which a text address resides.
    DONE:
    Module reference counting performed when module_text_address() is available.
  • Add a tail padding amount to the stream head as a option to facilitate conversion of mblks to sk_bufs.
    DONE:
    Implemented as SO_WRPAD.
  • Socket buffer handling:
    1. Rather than write offset and padding, why not provide a flag (e.g. SO_SKBUFF) to indicate to the stream head to allocate an sk_buff with the message block and share buffers between mblk and sk_buff, then, the sk_buff can be used without allocation in the bottom half. esballoc() and alloc_skbuff() can be used to set up the message block. dup() could be made aware of the hidden sk_buff and increment the shared sk_buff count as well. Also, msgpullup() and pullupmsg() could be made aware of message blocks containing sk_buffs and have them do the appropriate thing.
    2. The other thing that is needed is some way to tell the other end of a loopback connection that the sk_buff it has received already has an mblk attached to it as above. Then the message block could be simply passed upstream and one would not need to be esballoc'ed for it.
    3. Another thing is to provide the ability to partial checksum and copy data from user into these sk_buffs, but setting an SO_CSUM flag along with the SO_SKBUFF flag to indicate the type of checksum to perform.

    The combination of the above three items should provide some serious performance gains for Linux networking based stream heads.

    PARTIALLY DONE:
    Item (1) is done and complete. The 2nd generation UDP and RAW drivers are already using it. Item (2) and (3) remain.
  • Had another look at specfs, devfs and udev. It looks like we can create minor device nodes within /dev (not just /dev/streams) using devfs or udev. Again, this doesn't do everything that specfs does. specfs will demand load when an attempt is made to open a non-existent character device. Nevertheless, we can describe a "streams" class for udev and when a module registers a minor device node, we can have udev create that device node and provide permissions by adding our files to the /etc/udev/rules.d and /etc/udev/permissions.d directories.

    Therefore, on a udev system, we should make strconf-sh create the necessary rules.d and permissions.d file entries. register_strnod will be modified to create a udev instance within the stream class matching the rules.d and permissions.d entry when creating a minor device node within the specfs.

    On a devfs system, register_strdev and register_strnod should perform devfs calls instead of calling register_chrdev. That way minor device nodes will automatically appear at least once the module is loaded.

    TODO:
    rationalize specfs to devfs and udev
  • Have the STREAMS subsystem register a panic notifier on 2.6 kernels to be able to recover from panics caused by misbehaving STREAMS modules or drivers.
    TODO:
    Register panic notifier.
  • Timers and Buffer callbacks:- Still haven't tested these.
    DONE:
    Timers are working nicely for SCTP that was tested at the Vancouver interop. Had no problems whatsoever. Probably didn't run into a buffer callback, though, so those need to be more rigorously tested.

    Even mi_timers on M2PA are working fine.

  • More performance testing and profiling on SMP. On the same kernel running non-SMP we get pipe performance of about 80-90% of a Linux native pipe. Just running an SMP kernel drops this to 60% comparative. Running both CPUs in an SMP kernel does not improve matters. Need to profile this up 80-90% on SMP too. Also, so many changes were made for 64bit and 32bit compatibility that the old profiling information is out of date and needs to be updated.
    DONE:
    Profile and performance tests on SMP.
  • I am interested to convert the perftest program to use a FIFO instead of a pipe. This is because a FIFO is more closely related to a Linux Native pipe (i.e it has a read side and a write side, is really only one file pointer, and only supports unidirectional flow). Comparative tests as opposed to STREAMS-based pipes should be interesting.
    DONE:
    Tested. Results were unimpressive. STREAMS FIFOs perform about 1% better than STREAMS-based pipes.
  • 32bit compatibility:- Not done yet, but a plan in place. Override stupid CDROM ioctl conversions on kernels before 2.6.11, use compat_ioctl after that. For the older read/write interface it will be necessary to have two "magic" lengths: one the same as the old one for 32-bit and a new 64-bit "magic" length. This is so that the internal function can convert. Perhaps it can really be the same number in the lower 32-bits. Note that on later kernels there is a CONFIG_COMPAT define that we might want to check in the configure script.
    DONE:
    Tested on x86_64 with i686.
    DONE:
    Documentation of new registration functions.
  • SMP:- Finally got at least a Hyper-Threaded Intel 630 for testing. There are some issues discovered when running the test suites. Initial debugging is done (everything runs and doesn't crash) it is just that some multiple writers and readers are getting stuck in wait queues. What we need to do is to split the wait queues into open, close, read, write and ioctl from the big wait queue that it is, and largely get rid of the RSLEEP, WSLEEP, IOCWAIT type bits (we could still set them for compatibility with SVR4 but not examine them).
    DONE:
    Tested on X86_64 SMP.
  • 64bit clean:- Pretty good now. I have clean compiles and test suite runs on 2.6.9-22.EL x86_64 kernels.
    DONE:
    Tested on x86_64.
  • LiS Binary Compatibility:- Pretty much messed up right now. I have the regparm(0) stuff on the callout and callback functions, and the STREAMS Compatibility Modules does regparm(0) on all the lis_ functions. Primary STREAMS data structures align on the first portion of the data structure. Sizes vary, so don't do q+1. Flags are a little different. There are however several problematic data structures: cred_t and the ioctypes: iocblk, copyreq, copyresp, and the linkblk. When you enable binary compatibility mode, it uses the LiS versions of these.
    DONE:
    Needs testing.
  • LfS Binary Compatibility:- A little better. Callouts and callbacks always regparm(0). STREAMS utility functions are always regparm(3). Data structures are stable for the most part. cred_t, however, is variable depending on the kernel. Compile with the LiS binary compatibility and the cred_t will be fixed size.
    DONE:
    Needs testing.
  • Finish the documentation.
    MOSTLY DONE:
    updated documentation alot.
  • Finish the full STREAMS logger and proper implementation of the strlog() utility.
    DONE:
    Added to strutil package. Needs testing.
  • Need to rework the specfs. There are now several situations to consider:

    The following four situations require the specfs.

    1. 2.4 kernel without devfs
    2. 2.6 kernel without devfs
    3. 2.4 kernel with devfs but without devfsd
    4. 2.6 kernel with devfs but without devfsd

    The following two situations could use devfs instead of specfs.

    1. 2.4 kernel with devfs and with devfsd
    2. 2.6 kernel with devfs and with devfsd

    The following one situation could use udev instead of devfs or specfs.

    1. 2.6 kernel with udev

    To get this to work requires that there be an independent layer between the file system providing device access for STREAMS and the STREAMS subsystem. A set of registration functions need to be provided and a common set of call outs from the file system made to the STREAMS executive.

    The registration functions need to be called when a STREAMS driver loads and the file system needs to do the right thing. This also needs to include the registration of major and minor devices, including clone devices.

    The call out functions from the file system need to invoke the STREAMS device file operations in a predictable manner, and the STREAMS subsystem requires the ability to chain open calls, or even open STREAMS devices from within the kernel (e.g. for pipes and connld and such).

    It is difficult to get the file system (specfs, devfs, udev) to hold data structures in a manner that is also usable by the STREAMS subsystem, so the file system adaptation layer needs to maintain data structures in the same manner for all file systems.

    Well,... After a little investigation, it is all messed up. udev doesn't do what we need when demand loading pseudo devices, and devfs is probably not used anymore (I found most production kernels disabled for devfs) so it looks like spefs is the way to go. I might use udev for "real" device drivers, but that's just for SS7. So it looks like we are stuck with mounting the specfs. I notice that ptys still use their own file system too...

    So, what we need now is to rework data structures and the specfs to be a little more stable.

    DONE:
    Tested.
  • Kernel objects are another thing. For 2.6 kernels, we need to hold our data structures in the kobject manner so that the /sys file system is usable. This requires another adaptation layer because 2.4 kernels do this in a completely different way. Much of our /proc file system stuff needs to move into /sys for 2.6 kernels by stay the same for 2.4 kernels.

    The /sys file system does not really do much for STREAMS. The /dev/streams specfs file system does more for us.

    SKIPPED.

7.7 History

For the latest developments with regard to history of changes, please see the ChangeLog file in the release package.

8 Installation

8.1 Repositories

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package release can be accessed from the repositories of The OpenSS7 Project. For rpm(1) based systems, the package is available in a yum(8) repository based on repomd XML and may also be accessed using zypper(8) or yast(8). For dpkg(1) based systems, the package is available in a apt(8) repository.

By far the easiest (most repeatable and manageable) form for installing and using OpenSS7 packages is to install packages from the yum(8) or apt(8) repositories. If your distribution does not support yum(8), zypper(8), yast(8) or apt(8), then it is still possible to install the RPMs or DEBs from the repositories using rpm(1), dpkg(1); or by using wget(1) and then installing them from RPM or DEB using rpm(1) or dpkg(1) locally.

If binaries are not available for your distribution or specific kernel, but your distribution supports rpm(1) or dpkg(1), the next best method for installing and using OpenSS7 packages is to download and rebuild the source RPMs or DSCs from the repository. This can also be performed with yum(8), zypper(8), yast(8), apt(8); or directly using wget(1), rpm(1) or dpkg(1).

If your architecture does not support rpm(1) or dpkg(1) at all, or you have special needs (such as cross-compiling for embedded targets), the final resort method is to download, configure, build and install from tarball. In this later case, the easiest way to build and install OpenSS7 packages from tarball is to use the tarball for the OpenSS7 Master Package, openss7-0.9.2.G.

8.1.1 Repositories for YUM

To install or upgrade from the OpenSS7 repomd repositories, you will need a file in your /etc/yum.repo.d/ directory. This file can be obtained directly from the OpenSS7 repository, like so:

     $> REPOS="http://www.openss7.org/repos/rpms"
     $> wget $REPOS/centos/5.2/x86_64/repodata/openss7.repo
     $> sudo cp -f openss7.repo /etc/yum.repo.d/
     $> sudo yum makecache

This example assumes the the distribution is ‘centos’ and the distribution release is ‘5.2’ and the architecture requires is ‘x86_64’. Another example would be $REPOS/i686/suse/11.0/i686/repodata/openss7.repo, for using yum(8) with SUSE.

Once the repository is set up, OpenSS7 includes a number of virtual package definitions that eas the installation and removal of kernel modules, libraries and utilities. Downloading, configuring, building and installation for a single-kernel distribution is as easy as:

     $> sudo yum install streams

Removing the package is as easy as:

     $> sudo yum remove streams

If you have difficulty downloading the openss7.repo file, edit the following information into the file and place it into the /etc/yum.repo.d/openss7.repo file:

     -| [openss7]
     -| enabled = 1
     -| name = OpenSS7 Repository
     -| baseurl = http://www.openss7.org/repos/rpms/centos/5.2/x86_64
     -| gpgcheck = 1
     -| gpgkey = http://www.openss7.org/pubkey.asc

Note that it is also possible to point to these repositories as an additional installation source when installing CentOS, RedHat, Fedora, or others. You will have an additional STREAMS category from which to choose installation packages.

Some additional installation real or virtual package names and the installations they accomplish are as follows:

streams
This package can be used to install or remove the entire Linux Fast-STREAMS package. When installing, kernel modules will be installed automatically for the highest version kernel on your system. When removing, all corresponding kernel modules will also be removed.
streams-devel
This package can be used to install or remove the development components of the Linux Fast-STREAMS package. When installing, ‘streams’ and appropriate kernel module and kernel module development and debug packages will also be installed. When removing, the development package and all kernel module development and debug packages will also be removed.
streams-2.4.20-28.7
This package can be used to install or remove the package for a specific kernel version. When installing, the ‘streams’ package will also be installed if necessary. When removing the last kernel module package, the ‘streams’ package will also be removed.

Note that the version ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. Use the version returned by ‘$(uname -r)’ for the kernel for which you wish to install or remove the packages.

streams-2.4.20-28.7-devel
This package can be used to install or remove the development and debug packages for a specific kernel version. When installing, the ‘streams’ and ‘streams-devel’ packages will also be installed if necessary. When removing the development and debug for kernel modules for the last kernel, the ‘streams-devel’ package will also be removed.

Note that the version ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. Use the version returned by ‘$(uname -r)’ for the kernel for which you wish to install or remove the packages.

For assistance with specific RPMs, see Downloading the Binary RPM.

8.1.2 Repositories for APT

For assistance with specific DEBs, see Downloading the Debian DEB.

8.2 Downloading

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package releases can be downloaded from the downloads page of The OpenSS7 Project. The package is available as a binary RPM (for popular architectures) a source RPM, Debian binary DEB and source DSC, or as a tar ball. If you are using a browsable viewer, you can obtain the OpenSS7 release of streams from the links in the sections that follow.

By far the easiest (most repeatable and manageable) form for installing and using OpenSS7 packages is to download and install individual packages from binary RPM or DEB. If binary RPMs or DEBs are not available for your distribution, but your distribution supports rpm(1) or dpkg(1), the next best method for installing and using OpenSS7 packages is to download and rebuild the source RPMs or DSCs.

If your architecture does not support rpm(1) or dpkg(1) at all, or you have special needs (such as cross-compiling for embedded targets), the final resort method is to download, configure, build and install from tarball. In this later case, the easiest way to build and install OpenSS7 packages from tarball is to use the tarball for the OpenSS7 Master Package, openss7-0.9.2.G.

8.2.1 Downloading with YUM

OpenSS7 repositories support yum(8) and zypper(8) in repomd XML format as well as YaST and YaST2 formats.

OpenSS7 includes virtual packages that ease the installation and removal of kernel modules, libraries and utilities. Downloading, configuration, building and installation for a signle-kernel distribution installation is as easy as:

     % sudo yum install streams

This and additional packages for installation are detailed as follows:

streams
Install this package if you need the runtime streams package.
          % sudo yum install streams

This will install the streams, streams-lib and streams-KVERSION RPMs, where ‘KVERSION’ is the highest version number kernel on your system.

Remove this package if you need to remove all vestages of the streams package.

          % sudo yum remove streams

This will remove the streams, streams-lib, streams-devel, streams-KVERSION and streams-devel-KVERSION RPMs for all kernels on your system.

streams-devel
Install this package if you need the development streams package.
          % sudo yum install streams-devel

This will install the streams, streams-lib, streams-devel, streams-KVERSION and streams-devel-KVERSION RPMs, where ‘KVERSION’ is the highest version number kernel on your system.

Remove this package if you do not need development capabilities for the streams package for any kernel.

          % sudo yum remove streams-devel

This will remove the streams-devel and streams-devel-KVERSION RPMs for all kernels on your system.

streams-2.4.20-28.7
Install this package if you need the runtime streams for kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’. The value ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. For the running kernel, you can install the runtime streams components with:
          % sudo yum install streams-$(uname -r)

This will install the streams, streams-lib and streams-2.4.20-28.7 RPMs, where ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is the kernel version specified.

Remove this package if you no longer need the runtime streams for kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’. The value ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. For the running kernel, you can remove the runtime streams components with:

          % sudo yum remove streams-$(uname -r)

This will remove the streams-2.4.20-28.7 and streams-devel-2.4.20-28.7 RPMs, where ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is the kernel version specified. Also, if this is the last kernel for which streams was installed, the streams streams-lib and streams-devel RPMs will also be removed.

Note that this is a virtual package name: the actual RPMs installed or removed from the system is a kernel module package whose precise name will depend upon the system being used.

streams-devel-2.4.20-28.7
Install this package if you need the development streams package for kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’. The value ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. For the running kernel, you can install the kernel development streams components with:
          % sudo yum install streams-devel-$(uname -r)

This will install the streams, streams-lib, streams-devel, streams-2.4.20-28.7 and streams-devel-2.4.20-28.7 RPMs, where ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is the kernel version specified.

Remove this package if you no longer need the development capabilities for the streams package for kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’. The value ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. For the running kernel, you can remove the kernel development streams components with:

          % sudo yum remove streams-devel-$(uname -r)

This will remove the streams-devel-2.4.20-28.7 RPMs, where ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is the kernel version specified. Also, if this is the last kernel for which streams was installed, the streams-devel RPMs will also be removed.

Note that this is a virtual package name: the actual RPMs installed or removed from the system is a kernel module package whose precise name will depend upon the system being used.

streams-lib
This package is an auxillary package that should be removed and inserted automatically by yum(8). In rare instances you might need to remove or install this package explicitly.

8.2.2 Downloading with APT

OpenSS7 repositries support apt(8) repositorie digests and signatures.

8.2.3 Downloading the Binary RPM

To install from binary RPM, you will need several of the RPM for a complete installation. Binary RPM fall into several categories. To download and install a complete package requires the appropriate RPM from each of the several categories below, as applicable. Some release packages do not provide RPMs in each of the several categories.

To install from Binary RPM, you will need all of the following kernel independent packages for your architecture, and one of the kernel-dependent packages from the next section.

Independent RPM

Independent RPM are not dependent on the Linux kernel version. For example, the source package ‘streams-source-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.noarch.rpm’, is not dependent on kernel.

All of the following kernel independent RPM are required for your architecture. Binary RPMs listed here are for example only: additional binary RPMs are available from the downloads site. If your architecture is not available, you can build binary RPM from the source RPM (see see Building from the Source RPM).

Architecture Independent
streams-dev-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.noarch.rpm
The streams-dev package contains the device definitions necessary to run applications programs developed for Linux Fast-STREAMS.24
streams-doc-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.noarch.rpm
The streams-doc package contains this manual in plain text, postscript, pdf and html forms, along with the meta-information from the streams package. It also contains all of the manual pages necessary for developing Linux Fast-STREAMS applications and Linux Fast-STREAMS STREAMS modules or drivers.
streams-init-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.noarch.rpm
The streams-init package contains the init scripts and provides the ‘postinst’ scripts necessary to create kernel module preloads and modules definitions for all kernel module ‘core’ subpackages.
streams-source-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.noarch.rpm
The streams-source package contains the source code necessary for building the Linux Fast-STREAMS release. It includes the autoconf(1) configuration utilities necessary to create and distribute tarballs, rpm and deb/dsc.
Architecture Dependent
streams-devel-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
The streams-devel package contains library archives for static compilation, header files to develop Linux Fast-STREAMS modules and drivers. This also includes the header files and static libraries required to compile Linux Fast-STREAMS applications programs.
streams-lib-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
The streams-lib package contains the run-time shared libraries necessary to run application programs and utilities developed for the streams package.
streams-util-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
The streams-util package provides administrative and configuration test utilities and commands associated with the Linux Fast-STREAMS package.
Kernel-Dependent RPM

Kernel-Dependent RPM are dependent on specific Linux Kernel Binary RPM releases. Packages are provided for popular released RedHat kernels. Packages dependent upon RedHat or other kernel RPM will have the ‘_kversion’ kernel package version in the package name.

One of the following Kernel-Dependent packages is required for your architecture and kernel version. If your architecture or kernel version is not on the list, you can build binary RPM from the source RPM (see see Building from the Source RPM).25

streams-core-2.4.20-28.7-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
The streams-core package contains the loadable kernel modules that depend only on the kernel. This package is heavily tied to the kernel for which it was compiled. This particular package applies to kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’.26
streams-info-2.4.20-28.7-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
The streams-info package27 contains the module symbol version information for the core subpackage, above. It is possible to load this subpackage and compile modules that use the exported symbols without loading the actual kernel modules (from the core subpackage above). This package is heavily tied to the kernel for which it was compiled. This particular package applies to kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’.28
Configuration and Installation

To configure, build and install the binary RPM, See Configuring the Binary RPM.

8.2.4 Downloading the Debian DEB

To install from binary DEB, you will need several of the DEB for a complete installation. Binary DEB fall into several categories. To download and install a complete package requires the appropriate DEB from each of the several categories below, as applicable. Some release packages do not provide DEBs in each of the several categories.

To install from Binary DEB, you will need all of the following kernel independent packages for your architecture, and one of the kernel-dependent packages from the next section.

Independent DEB

Independent DEB are not dependent on the Linux kernel version. For example, the source package ‘streams-source_0.9.2.4-0_i386.deb’, is not dependent on kernel.

All of the following kernel independent DEB are required for your architecture. Binary DEBs listed here are for example only: additional binary DEBs are available from the downloads site. If your architecture is not available, you can build binary DEB from the Debian DSC (see see Building from the Debian DSC).

Architecture Independent
streams-dev_0.9.2.4-0_all.deb
The streams-dev package contains the device definitions necessary to run applications programs developed for Linux Fast-STREAMS. 29
streams-doc_0.9.2.4-0_all.deb
The streams-doc package contains this manual in plain text, postscript, pdf and html forms, along with the meta-information from the streams package. It also contains all of the manual pages necessary for developing Linux Fast-STREAMS applications and Linux Fast-STREAMS STREAMS modules or drivers.
streams-init_0.9.2.4-0_all.deb
The streams-init package contains the init scripts and provides the postinst scripts necessary to create kernel module preloads and modules definitions for all kernel module ‘core’ subpackages.
streams-source_0.9.2.4-0_all.deb
The streams-source package contains the source code necessary for building the Linux Fast-STREAMS release. It includes the autoconf(1) configuration utilities necessary to create and distribute tarballs, rpms and deb/dscs. !ignore 30 !end ignore
Architecture Dependent
streams-devel_0.9.2.4-0_i386.deb
The streams-devel package contains library archives for static compilation, header files to develop Linux Fast-STREAMS modules and drivers. This also includes the header files and static libraries required to compile Linux Fast-STREAMS applications programs.
streams-lib_0.9.2.4-0_i386.deb
The streams-lib package contains the run-time shared libraries necessary to run application programs and utilities developed for the streams package.
Kernel-Dependent DEB

Kernel-Dependent DEB are dependent on specific Linux Kernel Binary DEB releases. Packages are provided for popular released Debian kernels. Packages dependent upon Debian or other kernel DEB will have the ‘_kversion’ kernel package version in the package name.

One of the following Kernel-Dependent packages is required for your architecture and kernel version. If your architecture or kernel version is not on the list, you can build binary DEB from the source DEB (see see Building from the Debian DSC).31

streams-core-2.4.20-28.7_0.9.2.4-0_i386.deb
The streams-core package contains the loadable kernel modules that depend only on the kernel. This package is heavily tied to the kernel for which it was compiled. This particular package applies to kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’.32
streams-info-2.4.20-28.7_0.9.2.4-0_i386.deb
The streams-info package33 contains the module symbol version information for the core subpackage, above. It is possible to load this subpackage and compile modules that use the exported symbols without loading the actual kernel modules (from the core subpackage above). This package is heavily tied to the kernel for which it was compiled. This particular package applies to kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’.34
Configuration and Installation

To configure, build and install the Debian DEB, See Configuring the Debian DEB.

8.2.5 Downloading the Source RPM

If you cannot obtain a binary RPM for your architecture, or would like to roll you own binary RPM, download the following source RPM.

streams-0.9.2.4-1.src.rpm
This is the source RPM for the package. From this source RPM it is possible to build binary RPM for any supported architecture and for any 2.4 or 2.6 kernel.
Configuration

To configure the source RPM, See Configuring the Source RPM.

8.2.6 Downloading the Debian DSC

If you cannot obtain a binary DEB for your architecture, or would like to roll your own DEB, download the following Debian DSC.

streams_0.9.2.4-0.dsc
streams_0.9.2.4-0.tar.gz
This is the Debian DSC for the package. From this Debian DSC it is possible to build binary DEB for any supported architecture and for any 2.4 or 2.6 kernel.
Configuration

To configure the source RPM, See Configuring the Debian DSC.

8.2.7 Downloading the Tar Ball

For non-rpm(1) and non-dpkg(1) architectures, download the tarball as follows:

streams-0.9.2.4.tar.gz
streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
These are the tar(1) balls for the release. These tar(1) balls contain the autoconf(1) distribution which includes all the source necessary for building and installing the package. These tarballs will even build Source RPM and Binary RPM on rpm(1) architectures and Debian DSC and DEB on dpkg(1) architectures.

The tar ball may be downloaded easily with wget(1) as follows:

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

or

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.gz

Note that you will need an OpenSS7 Project user name and password to download release candidates (which are only available to subscribers and sponsors of the OpenSS7 Project).

Unpacking the Archive

After downloading one of the tar balls, unpack the archive using one of the following commands:

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.gz
     % tar -xzvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.gz

or

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

Either will create a subdirectory name streams-0.9.2.4 containing all of the files and subdirectories for the streams package.

Configuration

To configure and install the tar ball, See Configuring the Tar Ball.

8.2.8 Downloading from CVS

If you are a subscriber or sponsor of The OpenSS7 Project with CVS archive access privileges then you can download release, mid-release or release candidate versions of the streams package from the project CVS archive.

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package is located in the streams module of /var/cvs. For release tag information, see Releases.

To access the archive from the project CVS pserver, use the following commands to check out a version from the archive:

     % export CVSROOT='-d:pserver:username@cvs.openss7.com:2401/var/cvs'
     % cvs login
     Password: *********
     % cvs co -r streams_0.9.2.4 streams
     % cvs logout

It is, of course, possible to check out by date or by other criteria. For more information, see cvs(1).

Preparing the CVS Working Directory

Although public releases of the streams package do not require reconfiguration, creating a configurable directory from the CVS archive requires tools not normally distributed with the other releases.

The build host requires the following GNU tools:

  • m4 1.4.12
  • autoconf 2.63
  • automake 1.10.1
  • libtool 2.2.4
  • gettext 0.17
  • flex 2.5.33
  • bison 2.3

Most desktop development GNU/Linux distributions wil have these tools; however, some non-development or server-style installations might not and they must be installed separately.35

Also, these tools can be acquired from the FSF website in the free software directory, and also at the following locations:

It should be stressed that, in particular, the autoconf(1), and automake(1), must be at version releases 2.63 and 1.10.1. The versions normally distributed in some mainstream GNU/Linux distributions are, in fact, much older than these versions.36 GNU version of these packages configured and installed to default directories will install in /usr/local/ allowing them to coexist with distribution installed versions.

For building documentation, the build host also requires the following documentation tools:

  • gs 6.51 or ghostscript 6.51, or newer.
  • tetex 3.0 or texlive 2007, or newer.
  • texinfo 4.13a or newer.
  • transfig 3.2.3d or newer.
  • imagemagick 5.3.8 or ImageMagick 5.3.8, or newer.
  • groff 1.17.2 or newer.
  • gnuplot 3.7 or newer.
  • latex2html 1.62 or newer.

Most desktop GNU/Linux distributions will have these tools; however, some server-style installations (e.g. Ubuntu-server, SLES 9 or Fedora 6 or 7) will not and they must be installed separately.37

Note that texinfo 4.12 must not be used as it breaks the build process.

For uncooked manual pages, the entire groff(1) package is required on Debian and Ubuntu systems (the base package does not include grefer(1) which is used extensively by uncooked manual pages). The following will get what you need:

     Debian: % apt-get install groff_ext
     Ubuntu: % apt-get install groff

In addition, the build host requires a complete tool chain for compiling for the target host, including kernel tools such as genksyms(8) and others.

If you wish to package rpms on an rpm(1) system, or debs on a dpkg(1) system, you will need the appropriate tool chain. Systems based on rpm(1) typically have the necessary tool chain available, however, dpkg(1) systems do not. The following on a Debian or Ubuntu system will get what you need:

     % apt-get install debhelper
     % apt-get install fakeroot

To generate a configuration script and the necessary scriptlets required by the GNU autoconf(1) system, execute the following commands on the working directory:

     % autoreconf -fiv streams

where, streams is the name of the directory to where the working copy was checked out under the previous step. This command generates the configure script and other missing pieces that are normally distributed with the release Tar Balls, SRPMs and DSCs.

Make sure that ‘autoreconf --version’ returns ‘2.63’. Otherwise, you may need to perform something like the following:

     % PATH="/usr/local/bin:$PATH"
     % autoreconf -fiv streams

After reconfiguring the directory, the package can then be configured and built using the same instructions as are used for the Tar Ball, see Configuring the Tar Ball, and Building from the Tar Ball.

Do note, however, that make(1) will rebuild the documentation that is normally released with the package. Additional tools may be necessary for building the documentation. To avoid building and installing the documentation, use the --disable-devel or --disable-docs option to configure described in Configuring the Tar Ball.

When configuring the package in a working directory and while working a change-compile-test cycle that involves configuration macros or documentation, I find it of great advantage to invoke the GNU configure options --enable-maintainer-mode, --enable-dependency-tracking and --disable-devel. The first of these three options will add maintainer-specific targets to any generated Makefile, the second option will invoke automatic dependency tracking within the Makefile so rebuilds after changes to macro, source or documentation files will be automatically rebuilt; and the last option will suppress rebuilding and reinstalling documentation manual pages and header files. Header files will still be available under the /usr/src directory.

8.3 Configuration

8.3.1 Configuring the Binary RPM

In general the binary RPM do not require any configuration, however, during installation it is possible to relocate some of the installation directories. This allows some degree of customization. Relocations that are available on the binary RPM are as follows:

streams-core-2.4.20-28.7-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
/lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7
This relocatable directory contains the kernel modules that provide the streams core, drivers and modules.38

streams-info-2.4.20-28.7-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
/usr/include/streams/2.4.20-28.7
This relocatable directory contains the kernel module exported symbol information that allows other kernel modules to be compiled against the correct version of the streams package.39

streams-dev-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
(not relocatable)
streams-devel-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
/usr/lib
This relocatable directory contains streams libraries.
/usr/include/streams
This relocatable directory contains streams header files.

streams-doc-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
/usr/share/doc
This relocatable directory contains all package specific documentation (including this manual). The subdirectory in this directory is the streams-0.9.2.4 directory.
/usr/share/info
This relocatable directory contains info files (including the info version of this manual).
/usr/share/man
This relocatable directory contains manual pages.

streams-lib-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
/usr/lib
This relocatable directory contains the run-time shared libraries necessary to run applications programs and utilities developed for Linux Fast-STREAMS.
/usr/share/locale
This relocatable directory contains the locale information for shared library files.

streams-source-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
/usr/src
This relocatable directory contains the source code.

streams-util-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm
/usr/bin
This relocatable directory contains binary programs and utilities.
/usr/sbin
This relocatable directory contains system binary programs and utilities.
/usr/libexec
This relocatable directory contains test programs.
/etc
This relocatable directory contains init scripts and configuration information.
Installation

To install the binary RPM, See Installing the Binary RPM.

8.3.2 Configuring the Debian DEB

In general the binary DEB do not require any configuration.

Installation

To install the Debian DEB, See Installing the Debian DEB.

8.3.3 Configuring the Source RPM

When building from the source RPM (see Building from the Source RPM), the rebuild process uses a number of macros from the user's .rpmmacros file as described in rpm(8).

Following is an example of the ~/.rpmmacros file that I use for rebuilding RPMS:

     #
     # RPM macros for building rpms
     #
     
     %vendor OpenSS7 Corporation
     %distribution OpenSS7
     %disturl http://www.openss7.org/
     %packager Brian Bidulock <bidulock@openss7.org>
     %url http://www.openss7.org/
     
     %_signature gpg
     %_gpg_path /home/brian/.gnupg
     %_gpg_name openss7@openss7.org
     %_gpgbin /usr/bin/gpg
     
     %_source_payload w9.bzdio
     %_binary_payload w9.bzdio
     
     %_unpackaged_files_terminate_build 1
     %_missing_doc_files_terminate_build 1
     %_use_internal_dependency_generator 0
     %_repackage_all_erasures 0
     %_rollback_transaction_on_failure 0
     
     %configure2_5x %configure
     %make make
     

When building from the source RPM (see Building from the Source RPM), it is possible to pass a number of additional configuration options to the rpmbuild(1) process.

The additional configuration options are described below.

Note that distributions that use older versions of rpm do not have the --with or --without options defined. To achieve the same effect as:

     --with someparm=somearg

do:

     --define "_with_someparm --with-someparm=somearg"
--define "_kversion $PACKAGE_KVERSION"
Specifies the kernel version other than the running kernel for which to build. If _kversion is not defined when rebuilding, the environment variable PACKAGE_KVERSION is used. If the environment variable PACKAGE_KVERSION is not defined, then the version of the running kernel (i.e. discovered with ‘uname -r’) is used as the target version for kernel-dependent packages. This option can also be defined in an .rpmspec file using the macro name ‘_kversion’.
--with checks
--without checks
Enable or disable preinstall checks. Each packages supports a number of preinstall checks that can be performed by invoking the ‘check’ target with automake(1). These currently consist of checking each kernel module for unresolved kernel symbols, checking for documentation for exported kernel module symbols, checking for documentation for exported library symbols, checking for standard options for build and installable programs, checking for documentation for built and installable programs. Normally these checks are only run in maintainer mode, but can be enabled and disabled with this option.
--with k-optimize=HOW
--without k-optimize
Specify ‘HOW’ optimization, normal, size, speed or quick. size compiles kernel modules -Os, speed compiles kernel modules -O3, and quick compiles kernel modules -O0. The default is normal. Use with care.
--with cooked-manpages
--without cooked-manpages
Some systems do not like grefer(1) references in manual pages.40 This option will cook soelim(1), refer(1), tbl(1) and pic(1) commands from the manual pages and also strip groff(1) comments. The default is to leave manual pages uncooked: they are actually smaller that way.
--with public
--without public
Release public packages or private packages. This option has no effect on the streams package. The default is to release public packages.
--with k-debug
--without k-debug
Specifies whether kernel debugging is to be performed on the build kernel modules. Mutually exclusive with test and safe below. This has the effect of removing static and inline attributes from functions and invoking all debugging macros in the code. The default is to not perform kernel debugging.
--with k-test
--without k-test
Specifies whether kernel testing is to be performed. Mutually exclusive with debug above and safe below. This has the effect of removing static and inline attributes from functions and invoking most debugging macros in the code. The default is to not perform kernel testing.
--with k-safe
--without k-safe
Specifies whether kernel saftey is to be performed. Mutually exclusive with debug and test above. This has the effect of invoking some more pedantic assertion macros in the code. The default is not to apply kernel safety.
--with k-inline
--without k-inline
Specifies whether kernel inline functions are to be placed inline. This has the effect of adding the -finline-functions flag to CFLAGS for compiling kernel modules. Linux 2.4 kernels are normally compiled -O2 which does not respect the inline directive. This compiles kernel modules with -finline-functions to get closer to -O3 optimization. For better optimization controls, See Configuring the Tar Ball.
--with k-modversions
--without k-modversions
Specifies whether kernel symbol versions are to be applied to symbols exported by package kernel modules. The default is to version exported module symbols. This package does not export symbols so this option has no effect.
--with devfs
--without devfs
Specifies whether the build is for a device file system daemon enabled system with autoloading, or not. The default is to build for devfsd(1) autoloading when CONFIG_DEVFS_FS is defined in the target kernel. The ‘rebuild’ target uses this option to signal to the RPM spec file that the ‘dev’ subpackage need not be built. This option does not appear when the package has no devices.
--with devel
--without devel
Specifies whether to build development environment packages such as those that include header files, static libraries, manual pages and texinfo(1) documentation. The default is to build development environment packages. This option can be useful when building for an embedded target where only the runtime components are desired.
--with docs
--without docs
Specifies whether to build and install major documentation such manual pages and texinfo(1) documentation. The default is to build and install documentation. This option can be useful when building for an embedded target where only the runtime and static compile components are desired, but not major documentation. This option does not override the setting of --without devel.
--with tools
--without tools
Specifies whether user space packages are to be built. The default is to build user space packages. This option can be useful when rebuilding for multiple architectures and target kernels. The ‘rebuildautomake(1) target uses this feature when rebuilding for all available architectures and kernels, to rebuild user packages once per architecture instead of once per kernel.
--with modules
--without modules
Specifies whether kernel modules packages are to be built. The default is to build kernel module packages. This option can be useful when rebuilding for multiple architectures and target kernels. The ‘rebuildautomake(1) target uses this feature to rebuild for all available architectures and kernels.

In addition, the following rpm options, specific to the Linux Fast-STREAMS package are available:

--with streams-syncqs
When enabled, MP synchronization queues are enabled for SMP kernels. This option defaults to ‘disabled’. This option is not tested for early releases.
--without streams-kthreads
When enabled, the STREAMS scheduler runs as a kernel thread. When disabled, the STREAMS scheduler runs as a software interrupt (bottom half). Running the STREAMS scheduler at bottom half instead of a kernel thread breaks the strinet driver, which must be able to invoke kernel functions that might sleep (but don't). This option defaults to ‘enabled’.
--without streams-utils
I have experimented with putting the STREAMS utilities into their own package, strutil, however, this is not complete yet. This option defaults to ‘enabled’. Do not disable this option.
--without big-compile
When enabled, the STREAMS, the Stream head, and the clone driver are all compiled together in one big compilation unit. This allows the compiler greater opportunity to optimize. This option defaults to ‘enabled’. Do not disable this option.
--with module-sth
Enable sth (stream head) module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module, unless option ‘big-compile’ is specified. This option defaults to ‘disabled’. This option defaults to ‘enabled’ if ‘big-compile’ is enabled.
--with module-bufmod
Enable bufmod module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with module-nullmod
Enable nullmod module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with module-pipemod
Enable pipemod module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with module-connld
Enable connld module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with module-sc
Enable sc module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with module-testmod
Enable testmod module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-clone
Enable clone driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module, unless option ‘big-compile’ is specified. This option defaults to ‘disabled’. This option defaults to ‘enabled’ if ‘big-compile’ is enabled.
--with driver-echo
Enable echo driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-fifo
Enable fifo driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-log
Enable log driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-loop
Enable loop driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-nsdev
Enable nsdev driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-mux
Enable mux driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-nuls
Enable nuls driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-pipe
Enable pipe driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-sad
Enable sad driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-sfx
Enable sfx driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with driver-spx
Enable spx driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--with streams-fifos
Enable override of system fifos with STREAMS-based fifos. This option defaults to ‘disabled’. This option is not tested. Do not enable this option yet.
--with streams-bcm
Enable STREAMS binary compatibility mode. When enabled, exported functions (and callouts) will never pass three arguments in registers on architectures supporting regparm (i.e. __i386__, __x86_64__, __k8__) regardless of how the kernel was compiled. Additional LiS binary compatibility is also enabled (e.g. credentials). This option defaults to ‘disabled’.

In general, the default values of these options are sufficient for most purposes and no options need be provided when rebuilding the Source RPMs.

Build

To build from the source RPM, See Building from the Source RPM.

8.3.4 Configuring the Debian DSC

The Debian DSC can be configured by passing options in the environment variable BUILD_DEBOPTIONS. The options placed in this variable take the same form as those passed to the configure script, See Configuring the Tar Ball. For an example, See Building from the Debian DSC.

Build

To build from the Debian DSC, See Building from the Debian DSC.

8.3.5 Configuring the Tar Ball

All of the normal GNU autoconf(1) configuration options and environment variables apply. Additional options and environment variables are provided to tailor or customize the build and are described below.

8.3.5.1 Configure Options

Following are the additional configure options, their meaning and use:

--enable-checks
--disable-checks
Enable or disable preinstall checks. Each release package supports a number of preinstall checks that can be performed by invoking the ‘check’ target with make(1). These currently consist of checking each kernel module for unresolved kernel symbols, checking for documentation for exported kernel module symbols, checking for documentation for exported library symbols, checking for standard options for build and installable programs, checking for documentation for built and installable programs. Normally these checks are only run in maintainer mode, but can be enabled and disabled with this option.
--enable-autotest
--disable-autotest
Enable or disable pre- and post-installation testing. Each release package supports a number of autotest test suites that can be performed by invoking the ‘installcheck’ target with make(1). These currently consist of running installed modules, commands and binaries against a number of specific test cases. Normally these checks are only run in maintainer mode, but can be enabled and disabled with this option.
--disable-compress-manpages
Compress manual pages with ‘gzip -9’ or ‘bzip2 -9’ or leave them uncompressed. The default is to compress manual pages with ‘gzip -9’ or ‘bzip2 -9’ if a single compressed manual page exists in the target installation directory (--mandir). This disables automatic compression.
--disable-public
Disable public release. This option is not usable on public releases and only has a usable effect on Linux Fast-STREAMS when the package is acquired from CVS. In particular, the STREAMS SS7/VoIP/ISDN/SIGTRAN Stacks (strss7-0.9a.8) release package has a large number of non-public components. Specifying this option will cause the package to build and install all private release components in addition to the public release components. This option affects all release packages. Most release packages do not have private release components.
--disable-initscripts
Disables the installation of init scripts. The default is to configure and install init scripts and their associated configuration files.

Although the default is to install init scripts, installation attempts to detect a System V init script configuration, and if one is not found, the init scripts are installed into the appropriate directories, but the symbolic links to the run level script directories are not generated and the script is not invoked. Therefore, it is safe to leave this option unchanged, even on distributions that do not support System V init script layout.

--disable-32bit-libs
Disables the build and install of 32-bit compatibility libraries and test binaries on 64-bit systems that support 32-bit compatibility. The default is to build and install 32-bit compatibility libraries and test binaries. This option can be usefule when configuring for an embedded target where only native shared libraries and binaries are desired.
--disable-devel
Disables the installation of development environment components such as header files, static libraries, manual pages and texinfo(1) documentation. The default is to install development environment components. This option can be useful when configuring for an embedded target where only the runtime components are desired, or when performing a edit-compile-test cycle.
--disable-docs
Disables the build and installation of major documentation such manual pages and texinfo(1) documentation. The default is to build and install documentation. This option can be useful when building for an embedded target where only the runtime and static compile components are desired, but not major documentation. This option does not override the setting of --disable-devel.
--enable-tools
Specifies whether user space programs and libraries are to be built and installed. The default is to build and install user space programs and libraries. This option can be useful when rebuilding for multiple architectures and target kernels, particularly under rpm(1) or dpkg(1). The ‘rebuildautomake(1) target uses this feature when rebuilding RPMs for all available architectures and kernels, to rebuild user packages once per architecture instead of once per kernel.
--enable-modules
Specifies whether kernel modules are to be built and installed. The default is to build and install kernel modules. This option can be useful when rebuilding for multiple architectures and target kernels, particularly under rpm(1) or dpkg(1). The ‘rebuildautomake(1) target uses this feature to rebuild for all available architectures and kernels.
--enable-arch
Specifies whether architectural dependent package components are to be built and installed. This option can be useful when rebuilding for multiple architectures and target kernels, particularly under dpkg(1). The default is to configure, build and install architecture dependent package components.
--enable-indep
Specifies whether architecture independent package components are to be built and installed. This option can be useful when rebuilding for multiple architectures and target kernels, particularly under dpkg(1). The default is to configure, build and install architecture independent package components.
--enable-k-inline
Enable kernel inline functions. Most Linux kernels build without -finline-functions. This option adds the -finline-functions and -Winline flags to the compilation of kernel modules. Use with care.
--enable-k-safe
Enable kernel module run-time safety checks. Specifies whether kernel safety is to be performed. This option is mutually exclusive with --enable-k-test and --enable-k-debug below. This has the effect of invoking some more pedantic assertion macros in the code. The default is not to apply kernel safety.
--enable-k-test
Enable kernel module run-time testing. Specifies whether kernel testing is to be performed. This option is mutually exclusive with --enable-k-safe above and --enable-k-debug below. This has the effect of remove static and inline attributes from functions and invoking most non-performance affecting debugging macros in the code. The default is not to perform kernel testing.
--enable-k-debug
Enable kernel module run-time debugging. Specifies whether kernel debugging is to be performed. This option is mutually exclusive with --enable-k-safe and --enable-k-test above. This has the effect of removing static and inline attributes from functions and invoking all debugging macros in the code (including performance-affecting debug macros). The default is to not perform kernel debugging.
--enable-devfs
--disable-devfs
Specifies whether the build is for a device file system daemon enabled system with autoloading, or not. The default is to build for devfsd(8) autoloading when CONFIG_DEVFS_FS is defined in the target kernel. The ‘reuildautomake(1) target uses this option to signal to the RPM spec file that the ‘dev’ subpackage need not be built. This option has no effect for release packages that do not provide devices.
--with-gpg-user=GNUPGUSER
Specify the gpg(1)GNUPGUSER’ for signing RPMs and tarballs. The default is the content of the environment variable GNUPGUSER. If unspecified, the gpg(1) program will normally use the user name of the account invoking the gpg(1) program. For building source RPMs, the RPM macro ‘_gpg_name’ will override this setting.
--with-gpg-home=GNUPGHOME
Specify the ‘GNUPGHOME’ directory for signing RPMs and tarballs. The default is the user's ~/.gpg directory. For building source RPMs, the RPM macro ‘_gpg_path’ will override this setting.
--with-pkg-epoch=EPOCH
Specifies the epoch for the package. This is neither used for rpm(1) nor dpkg(1) packages, it applies to the tarball release as a whole. The default is the contents of the .pkgepoch file in the release package source directory or, if that file does not exist, zero (0).
--with-pkg-release=RELEASE
Specifies the release for the package. This is neither used for rpm(1) nor dpkg(1) packages, it applies to the tarball release as a whole. The default is the contents of the .pkgrelease file in the release package source directory or, if that file does not exist, one (1). This is the number after the last point in the package version number.
--with-pkg-distdir=DIR
Specifies the distribution directory for the package. This is used by the maintainer for building distributions of tarballs. This is the directory into which archives are copied for distribution. The default is the top build directory.
--with-cooked-manpages
Convert manual pages to remove macro dependencies and grefer(1) references. Some systems do not like grefer(1) references in manual pages.41 This option will cook soelim(1), refer(1), tbl(1) and pic(1) commands from the manual pages and also strip groff(1) comments. The default is to leave manual pages uncooked (they are actually smaller that way).
--with-rpm-epoch=PACKAGE_EPOCH
Specify the ‘PACKAGE_EPOCH’ for the RPM spec file. The default is to use the RPM epoch contained in the release package file .rpmepoch.
--with-rpm-release=PACKAGE_RPMRELEASE
Specify the ‘PACKAGE_RPMRELEASE’ for the RPM spec file. The default is to use the RPM release contained in the release package file .rpmrelease.
--with-rpm-extra=PACKAGE_RPMEXTRA
Specify the ‘PACKAGE_RPMEXTRA’ extra release information for the RPM spec file. The default is to use the RPM extra release information contained in the release package file .rpmextra. Otherwise, this value will be determined from automatic detection of the RPM distribution.
--with-rpm-topdir=PACKAGE_RPMTOPDIR
Specify the ‘PACKAGE_RPMTOPDIR’ top directory for RPMs. If specified with a null ‘PACKAGE_RPMTOPDIR’, the default directory for the RPM distribution will be used. If this option is not provided on the command line, the top build directory will be used as the RPM top directory as well.
--with-deb-epoch=EPOCH
Specify the ‘PACKAGE_DEBEPOCH’ for the DEB control file. The default is to use the DEB epoch contained in the release package file .debepoch.
--with-deb-release=RELEASE
Specify the ‘PACKAGE_DEBRELEASE’ for the DEB control file. The default is to use the DEB release contained in the release package file .debrelease.
--with-deb-topdir=DIR
Specify the ‘PACKAGE_DEBTOPDIR’ top directory for DEBs. If specified with a null ‘PACKAGE_DEBTOPDIR’, the default directory for the DEB distribution will be used. If this option is not provided on the command line, the top build directory will be used as the DEB top directory as well.
--with-k-release=PACKAGE_KRELEASE
Specify the ‘PACKAGE_KRELEASE’ release of the Linux kernel for which the build is targeted. When not cross compiling, if this option is not set, the build will be targeted at the kernel running in the build environment (e.g., ‘uname -r’). When cross-compiling this option must be specified or the configure script will generate an error and terminate.
--with-k-linkage=PACKAGE_KLINKAGE
Specify the ‘PACKAGE_KLINKAGE’ for kernel module linkage. This can be one of the following:
  • loadable’ – loadable kernel modules
  • linkable’ – linkable kernel objects
The default is to build loadable kernel modules.
--with-k-modules=K-MODULES-DIR
Specify the ‘K-MODULES-DIR’ directory to which kernel modules will be installed. The default is based on the option --with-k-release, --with-k-prefix and --with-k-rootdir. The default is DESTDIR/K-MODULES-DIR which is typically DESTDIR/lib/modules/PACKAGE_KRELEASE/. This directory is normally located by the configure script and need only be provided for special cross-build environments or when requested by a configure script error message.
--with-k-build=K-BUILD-DIR
Specify the ‘K-BUILD-DIR’ base kernel build directory in which configured kernel source resides. The default is DESTDIR/K-MODULES-DIR/build. This directory is normally located by the configure script and need only be provided for special cross-build environments or when requested by a configure script error message.
--with-k-source=K-SOURCE-DIR
Specify the ‘K-SOURCE-DIR’ base kernel build directory in which configured kernel source resides. The default is DESTDIR/K-MODULES-DIR/source. This directory is normally located by the configure script and need only be provided for special cross-build environments or when requested by a configure script error message.
--with-k-modver=K-MODVER-FILE
Specify the ‘K-MODVER-FILE’ kernel module versions file. The default is K-BUILD-DIR/Module.symvers. This file is normally located by the configure script and need only be provided for special cross-build environments or when requested by a configure script error message.
--with-k-sysmap=K-SYSMAP-FILE
Specify the ‘K-SYSMAP-FILE’ kernel system map file. The default is K-BUILD-DIR/System.map. This file is normally located by the configure script and need only be provided for special cross-build environments or when requested by a configure script error message.
--with-k-archdir=K-ARCHDIR
Specify the ‘K-ARCHDIR’ kernel source architecture specific directory. The default is DESTDIR/K-SOURCE-DIR/arch. This directory is normally located by the configure script and need only be provided for special cross-build environments or when requested by a configure script error message.
--with-k-machdir=K-MACHDIR
Specify the ‘K-MACHDIR’ kernel source machine specific directory. The default is DESTDIR/K-SOURCE-DIR/target_cpu. This directory is normally located by the configure script and need only be provided for special cross-build environments or when requested by a configure script error message.
--with-k-config=K-CONFIG
Specify the ‘K-CONFIG’ kernel configuration file. The default is BOOT/config-K-RELEASE. This configuration file is normally located by the configure script and need only be provided for special cross-build environments or when requested by a configure script error message.
--with-k-optimize=HOW
--without-k-optimize
Specify ‘HOW’ optimization, normal, size, speed or quick. size compiles kernel modules -Os, speed compiles kernel modules -O3, and quick compiles kernel modules -O0. The default is normal. Use with care. The most common use of this option is to specify --with-k-optimize=speed --disable-k-safe to compile for maximum performance. Nevertheless, even these setting are ricing and the resulting kernel modules will only be about 5% faster.
--with-strconf-master=STRCONF_CONFIG
Specify the ‘STRCONF_CONFIG’ file name to which the configuration master file is written. The default is Config.master.
--with-base-major=STRCONF_MAJBASE
Start numbering for major devices at ‘STRCONF_MAJBASE’. The default is ‘230’.

In addition, the following configure options, specific to the Linux Fast-STREAMS package are available:

--enable-streams-bcm
Enable STREAMS binary compatibility mode. When enabled, exported functions (and callouts) will never pass three arguments in registers on architectures supporting regparm (i.e. __i386__, __x86_64__, __k8__) regardless of how the kernel was compiled. Additional LiS binary compatibility is also enabled (e.g. credentials). This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--disable-streams-irq
Disable STREAMS irq suppression. When enabled, hard interrupts are suppressed whenever locks are taken throughout the STREAMS executive. When profiling using masked interrupt driven profilers, this makes profiling difficult. When disabled, soft interrupts are suppressed only. This allows interrupt driven profilers to give more meaningful information. Do not disable hard interrupt suppression unless you know what your are doing. Also, as the softirq threads are run whenever soft interrupt locks are released, this has a negative impact on STREAMS performance. This option defaults to ‘enabled’.
--enable-streams-stats
Enable STREAMS statistics counting. When disabled, it is the module or driver's responsibility to increment STREAMS statistics upon entry to putp, srvp, qopen, qclose and qadmin procedures. When enabled, STREAMS will perform statistics counting of entry to the putp, srvp, qopen, qclose and qadmin procedures whenever a module_stat structure is associated with the queue. The scls(8) utility can be used to display the statistics of any module or driver. Enabling this feature has a slight negative impact on performance and is contrary to SVR 4.2 behaviour and is, therefore, disabled by default. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-streams-syncqs
When enabled, MP synchronization queues are enabled for SMP kernels. This option defaults to ‘disabled’. This option is not tested for early releases.
--disable-streams-kthreads
When enabled, the STREAMS scheduler runs as a kernel thread. When disabled, the STREAMS scheduler runs as a software interrupt (bottom half). Running the STREAMS scheduler at bottom half instead of a kernel thread breaks the strinet driver, which must be able to invoke kernel functions that might sleep (but don't). This option defaults to ‘enabled’.
--disable-streams-utils
We experimented with putting the STREAMS utilities into their own package, strutil, however, this is not complete yet. As the strutil was only necessary because LiS did not support these utilities itself, and LiS is deprecated, the strutil package is also deprecated, and this feature should always be left enabled. This option defaults to ‘enabled’. Do not disable this option.
--disable-big-compile
When enabled, the STREAMS, the Stream head, and the clone driver are all compiled together in one big compilation unit. This allows the compiler greater opportunity to optimize. This option defaults to ‘enabled’. Do not disable this option.
--enable-module-sth
Enable sth (stream head) module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module, unless option ‘big-compile’ is specified. This option defaults to ‘disabled’. This option defaults to ‘enabled’ if ‘big-compile’ is enabled.
--enable-module-bufmod
Enable bufmod module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-module-nullmod
Enable nullmod module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-module-pipemod
Enable pipemod module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-module-connld
Enable connld module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-module-sc
Enable sc module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-module-testmod
Enable testmod module linked into streams object. The default is to create the module as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-clone
Enable clone driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module, unless option ‘big-compile’ is specified. This option defaults to ‘disabled’. This option defaults to ‘enabled’ if ‘big-compile’ is enabled.
--enable-driver-echo
Enable echo driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-fifo
Enable fifo driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-log
Enable log driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-loop
Enable loop driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-nsdev
Enable nsdev driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-mux
Enable mux driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-nuls
Enable nuls driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-pipe
Enable pipe driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-sad
Enable sad driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-sfx
Enable sfx driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-driver-spx
Enable spx driver linked into streams object. The default is to create the driver as a separate loadable kernel module. This option defaults to ‘disabled’.
--enable-streams-fifos
Enable override of system fifos with STREAMS-based fifos. This option defaults to ‘disabled’. This option is not tested. Do not enable this option yet.

8.3.5.2 Environment Variables

Following are additional environment variables to configure, their meaning and use:

GPG
GPG signature command. This is used for signing distributions by the maintainer. By default, configure will search for this tool.
GNUPGUSER
GPG user name. This is used for signing distributions by the maintainer.
GNUPGHOME
GPG home directory. This is used for signing distributions by the maintainer.
GPGPASSWD
GPG password for signing. This is used for signing distributions by the maintainer. This environment variable is not maintained by the configure script and should only be used on an isolated system.
SOELIM
Roff source elimination command, soelim(1). This is only necessary when the option --with-cooked-manpages has been specified and configure cannot find the proper soelim(1) command. By default, configure will search for this tool.
REFER
Roff references command, refer(1). This is only necessary when the option --with-cooked-manpages has been specified and configure cannot find the proper refer(1) command. By default, configure will search for this tool.
TBL
Roff table command, tbl(1). This is only necessary when the option --with-cooked-manpages has been specified and configure cannot find the proper tbl(1) command. By default, configure will search for this tool.
PIC
Roff picture command, pic(1). This is only necessary when the option --with-cooked-manpages has been specified and configure cannot find the proper pic(1) command. By default, configure will search for this tool.
GZIP
Default compression options provided to GZIP_CMD.
GZIP_CMD
Manpages (and kernel modules) compression commands, gzip(1). This is only necessary when the option --without-compressed-manpages has not been specified and configure cannot find the proper gzip(1) command. By default, configure will search for this tool.
BZIP2
Default compression options provided to BZIP2_CMD
BZIP2_CMD
Manpages compression commands, bzip2(1). This is only necessary when the option --without-compressed-manpages has not been specified and configure cannot find the proper bzip2(1) command. By default, configure will search for this tool.
MAKEWHATIS
Manpages apropros database rebuild command, makewhatis(8). By default, configure will search for this tool. By default, configure will search for this tool.
CHKCONFIG
Chkconfig command, chkconfig(8). This was used for installation of init scripts. All packages now come with init_install(8) and init_remove(8) scripts used to install and remove init scripts on both RPM and Debian systems.
RPM
Rpm command, rpm(1). This is only necessary for RPM builds. By default, configure will search for this tool.
RPMBUILD
Build RPM command, rpmbuild(1). This is only necessary for RPM builds. By default, configure will search for this tool. rpm(1) will be used instead of rpmbuild(1) only if rpmbuild(1) cannot be found.
DPKG
Dpkg comand, dpkg(1). This command is used for building Debian packages. By default, configure will search for this tool.
DPKG_SOURCE
Dpkg-source command, dpkg-source(1). This command is used for building Debian dsc packages. By default, configure will search for this tool.
DPKG_BUILDPACKAGE
Dpkg-buildpackage command, dpkg-buildpackage(1). This command is used for building Debian deb packages. By default, configure will search for this tool.
DEB_BUILD_ARCH
Debian build architecture. This variable is used for building Debian packages. The default is the autoconf build architecture.
DEB_BUILD_GNU_CPU
Debian build cpu. This variable is used for building Debian packages. The default is the autoconf build cpu.
DEB_BUILD_GNU_SYSTEM
Debian build os. This variable is used for building Debian packages. The default is the autoconf build os.
DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE
Debian build alias. This variable is used for building Debian packages. The default is the autoconf build alias.
DEB_HOST_ARCH
Debian host architecture. This variable is used for building Debian packages. The default is the autoconf host architecture.
DEB_HOST_GNU_CPU
Debian host cpu. This variable is used for building Debian packages. The default is the autoconf host cpu.
DEB_HOST_GNU_SYSTEM
Debian host os. This variable is used for building Debian packages. The default is the autoconf host os.
DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE
Debian host alias. This variable is used for building Debian packages. The default is the autoconf host alias.
LDCONFIG
Configure loader command, ldconfig(8). Command used to configure the loader when libraries are installed. By default, configure will search for this tool.
DESTDIR
Cross build root directory. Specifies the root directory for build and installation.
DEPMOD
Build kernel module dependencies command, depmod(8). This is used during installation of kernel modules to a running kernel to rebuild the modules dependency database. By default, configure will search for this tool.
MODPROBE
Probe kernel module dependencies command, modprobe(8). This is used during installation of kernel modules to a running kernel to remove old modules. By default, configure will search for this tool.
LSMOD
List kernel modules command, lsmod(8). This is used during installation of kernel modules to a running kernel to detect old modules for removal. By default, configure will search for this tool.
LSOF
List open files command, lsof(1). This is used during installation of kernel modules to a running kernel to detect old modules for removal. Processes owning the old kernel modules will be killed and the module removed. If the process restarts, the new module will be demand loaded. By default, configure will search for this tool.
GENKSYMS
Generate kernel symbols command, genksyms(8). This is used for generating module symbol versions during build. By default, configure will search for this tool.
KGENKSYMS
Linux 2.6 generate kernel symbols command, genksyms(8). This is used for generating module symbol version during build. By default, configure will search for this tool.
OBJDUMP
Object dumping command, objdump(1). This is used for listing information about object files. By default, configure will search for this tool.
NM
Object symbol listing command, nm(1). This is used for listing information about object files. By default, configure will search for this tool.
MODPOST_CACHE
Cache file for modpost(1). The version of the modpost.sh script that ships with each package can cache information to a cache file to speed multiple builds. This environment variable is used to specify a cache file.
AUTOM4TE
Autom4te command, autom4te(1). This is the executable used by autotest for pre- and post-installation checks. By default, configure will search for this tool.
AUTOTEST
Autotest macro build command, autom4te(1). This is the executable used by autotest for pre- and post-installation checks. By default, configure will search for this tool.
8.3.5.3 Build

To build from the tar ball, See Building from the Tar Ball.

8.4 Building

8.4.1 Building from the Source RPM

If you have downloaded the necessary source RPM (see Downloading the Source RPM), then the following instructions will rebuild the binary RPMs on your system. Once the binary RPMs are rebuilt, you may install them as described above (see Installing the Binary RPM).

The source RPM is rebuilt to binary RPMs as follows:

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/rpms/SRPMS/streams-0.9.2.4-1.src.rpm
     % rpmbuild --rebuild -vv streams-0.9.2.4-1.src.rpm

The rebuild process can also recognize a number of options that can be used to tweak the resulting binaries, See Configuring the Source RPM. These options are provided on the rpm(1) command line. For example:

     % rpmbuild --rebuild -vv --target athlon-redhat-linux \
       --define "_kversion 2.4.20-28.7" \
       -- streams-0.9.2.4-1.src.rpm

will rebuild binary RPM for the ‘2.4.20-28.7’ kernel for the ‘athlon’ architecture. 42

Installation

To install the resulting binary RPM, See Installing the Binary RPM.

8.4.2 Building from the Debian DSC

If you have downloaded the necessary Debian DSC (see Downloading the Debian DSC), then the following instructions will rebuild the binary DEBs on your system. Once the binary DEBs are rebuilt, you may install them as described above (see Installing the Debian DEB).

The Debian DSC is rebuilt to binary DEBs as follows:

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/debian/streams_0.9.2.4-0.dsc
     % wget http://www.openss7.org/debian/streams_0.9.2.4-0.tar.gz
     % dpkg-buildpackage -v streams_0.9.2.4-0.dsc

The rebuild process can also recognize a number of options that can be used to tweak the resulting binaries, See Configuring the Debian DSC. These options are provided in the environment variable BUILD_DPKGOPTIONS and have the same form as the options to configure, See Configuring the Tar Ball. For example:

     % BUILD_DEBOPTIONS='
             --with-k-release=2.4.20-28.7
             --host=athlon-debian-linux-gnu'
       dpkg-buildpackage -v \
       streams_0.9.2.4-0.dsc

will rebuild binary DEB for the ‘2.4.20-28.7’ kernel for the ‘athlon’ architecture. 43

Installation

To install the resulting binary DEB, See Installing the Debian DEB.

8.4.3 Building from the Tar Ball

If you have downloaded the tar ball (see Downloading the Tar Ball), then the following instructions will rebuild the package on your system. (Note that the build process does not required root privilege.)

8.4.3.1 Native Build

Following is an example of a native build against the running kernel:

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % pushd streams-0.9.2.4
     % ./configure
     % make
     % popd
8.4.3.2 Cross-Build

Following is an example for a cross-build. The kernel release version must always be specified for a cross-build.44 If you are cross-building, specify the root for the build with environment variable DESTDIR. The cross-compile host must also be specified if different from the build host. Either the compiler and other tools must be in the usual places where GNU autoconf(1) can find them, or they must be specified with declarations such as ‘CC=/usr/lib/ppc-linux/gcc’ on the configure command line.

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % pushd streams-0.9.2.4
     % ./configure DESTDIR="/some/other/root" \
     	--with-k-release=2.4.18 --host sparc-linux
     % make
     % popd

8.5 Installing

8.5.1 Installing the Binary RPM

If you have downloaded the necessary binary RPMs (see Downloading the Binary RPM), or have rebuilt binary RPMs using the source RPM (see Building from the Source RPM), then the following instructions will install the RPMs on your system. For additional information on rpm(1), see rpm(8).

     % pushd RPMS/i686
     % rpm -ihv streams-*-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm

You must have the correct binary RPMs downloaded or built for this to be successful.

Some of the packages are relocatable and can have final installation directories altered with the --relocate option to rpm(1), see rpm(8). For example, the following will relocate the documentation and info directories:

     % pushd RPMS/i686
     % rpm -ihv \
             --relocate '/usr/share/doc=/usr/local/share/doc' \
             --relocate '/usr/share/info=/usr/local/share/info' \
             -- streams-doc-0.9.2.4-1.7.2.i686.rpm

The previous example will install the streams-doc package by will relocate the documentation an info directory contents to the /usr/local version.

8.5.2 Installing the Debian DEB

If you have downloaded the necessary Debian DEBs (see Downloading the Debian DEB), or have rebuild binary DEBs using the Debian DSC (see Building from the Debian DSC), then the following instructions will install the DEBs on your system. For additional information see dpkg(8).

     % pushd debian
     % dpkg -iv streams-*_0.9.2.4-0_*.deb

You must have the correct .deb files downloaded or build for this to be successful.

8.5.3 Installing the Tar Ball

After the build process (see Building from the Tar Ball), installation only requires execution of one of two automake(1) targets:

make install
The ‘installautomake(1) target will install all the components of the package. Root privilege is required to successfully invoke this target.
make install-strip
The ‘install-stripautomake(1) target will install all the components of the package, but will strip unnecessary information out of the objects and compress manual pages. Root privilege is required to successfully invoke this target.

8.6 Removing

8.6.1 Removing the Binary RPM

To remove an installed version of the binary RPMs (whether obtained from the OpenSS7 binary RPM releases, or whether created by the source RPM), execute the following command:

     % rpm -evv `rpm -qa | grep '^streams-'`

For more information see rpm(1).

8.6.2 Removing the Debian DEB

To remove and installed version of the Debian DEB (whether obtained from the OpenSS7 binary DEB releases, or whether created by the Debian DSC), execute the following command:

     % dpkg -ev `dpkg -l | grep '^streams-'`

For more information see dpkg(8).

8.6.3 Removing the Source RPM

To remove all the installed binary RPM build from the source RPM, see Removing the Binary RPM. Then simply remove the binary RPM package files and source RPM file. A command such as:

     % find / -name 'streams-*.rpm' -type f -print0 | xargs --null rm -f

should remove all streams RPMs from your system.

8.6.4 Removing the Debian DSC

To remove all the installed binary DEB build from the Debian DSC, see Removing the Debian DEB. Then simply remove the binary DEB package files and Debian DSC file. A command such as:

     % find / \( -name 'streams-*.deb' \
              -o -name 'streams-*.dsc' \
              -o -name 'streams-*.tar.* \
              \) -type f -print0 | xargs --null rm -f

should remove all streams DEBs, DSCs and TARs from your system.

8.6.5 Removing the Tar Ball

To remove a version installed from tar ball, change to the build directory where the package was built and use the ‘uninstallautomake(1) target as follows:

     % cd /usr/src/streams
     % make uninstall
     % cd ..
     % rm -fr streams-0.9.2.4
     % rm -f streams-0.9.2.4.tar.gz
     % rm -f streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

If you have inadvertently removed the build directory and, therefore, no longer have a configured directory from which to execute ‘make uninstall’, then perform all of the steps for configuration and installation (see Installing the Tar Ball) except the final installation and then perform the steps above.

8.7 Loading

8.7.1 Normal Module Loading

When Linux Fast-STREAMS installs, modules and drivers belonging to release packages are normally configured for demand loading. The ‘install’ and ‘install-stripautomake(1) targets will make the necessary changes to the /etc/modules.conf file and place the modules in an appropriate place in /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/streams. The ‘make install’ process should have copied the kernel module files streams-*.o to the directory /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/streams. This means that to load any of these modules, you can simply execute, for example, ‘modprobe stream-somedriver’.45

8.7.1.1 Linux Fast-STREAMS Module Loading

The streams demand load system supports both the old kerneld and the new kmod mechanisms for demand loading kernel modules.

The convention for streams kernel loadable object files is:

  • Their name start with "streams-".
  • They are placed in /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/streams/, where ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is an example kernel version.

If your kernel has been built using the kerneld daemon, then streams kernel modules will automatically load as soon as the STREAMS module is pushed or the driver is opened. The ‘make install’ process makes the necessary changes to the /etc/modules.conf file. After the install, you will see lines like the following added to your /etc/modules.conf file:

     prune modules.streams
     if -f /lib/modules/`uname -r`/modules.streams
     include /lib/modules/`uname -r`/modules.streams
     endif

which will provide for demand loading of the modules if they have been built and installed for the running kernel. The /lib/modules/`uname -r`/modules.streams file looks like this:

     alias char-major-245  streams-some_driver
     alias char-major-246  streams-other_driver

Note that STREAMS modules are not listed in this file, but will be loaded by name using kerneld if available.

Linux Fast-STREAMS has a wider range of kernel module loading mechanisms than is provided by the deprecated LiS. For mechanisms used for kernel module loading under Linux Fast-STREAMS, See About This Manual.

8.7.1.2 Linux STREAMS Module Loading

LiS is deprecated and this section has been deleted.

8.8 Maintenance

8.8.1 Makefile Targets

automake(1) has many targets, not all of which are obvious to the casual user. In addition, OpenSS7 automake(1) files have additional rules added to make maintaining and releasing a package somewhat easier. This list of targets provides some help with what targets can be invoked, what they do, and what they hope to achieve. The available targets are as follows:

8.8.1.1 User Targets

The following are normal targets intended to be invoked by installers of the package. They are concerned with compiling, checking the compile, installing, checking the installation, and removing the package.

[all]
This is also the default target. It compiles the package and all release packages selected by configure. This is performed after configuring the source with ‘configure’. A Makefile stub is provided so that if the package has not had autoreconf(1) run (such as when checked out from CVS, the package will attempt to run ‘autoreconf -fiv’.

All OpenSS7 Project packages are configured without maintainer mode and without dependency tracking by default. This speeds compilation of the package for one-time builds. This also means that if you are developing using the source package (edit-compile-test cycle), changes made to source files will not cause the automatic rebuilding due to dependencies. There are two ways to enable dependency tracking: specify --enable-maintainer-mode to configure; or, specify --enable-dependency-tracking to configure. I use the former during my edit-compile-test cycle.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

check
All OpenSS7 Project release packages provide check scripts for the check target. This step is performed after compiling the package and will run all of the ‘check’ programs against the compiled binaries. Which checks are performed depends on whether --enable-maintainer-mode was specified to configure. If in maintainer mode, checks that assist with the release of the package will be run (such as checking that all manual pages load properly and that they have required sections.) We recommend running the check stage before installing, because it catches problems that might keep the installed package from functioning properly.

Another way to enable the greater set of checks, without invoking maintainer mode, is to specify --enable-checks to configure. For more information, see Pre-installation Checks.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target, although the functions performed are customized for the OpenSS7 Project. This target does not require root privilege.

install
install-strip
The ‘install’ target installs the package by installing each release package. This target also performs some actions similar to the pre- and post-install scripts used by packaging tools such as rpm(1) or dpkg(1). The ‘install-strip’ target strips unnecessary symbols from executables and kernel modules before installing.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target requires root privilege.

installcheck
All OpenSS7 Project packages provide test scripts for the ‘installcheck’ target. Test scripts are created and run using autotest (part of the autoconf(1) package). Which test suites are run and how extensive they are depends on whether --enable-maintainer-mode was specified to configure. When in maintainer mode, all test suites will be run. When not in maintainer mode, only a few post-install checks will be performed, but the test suites themselves will be installed in /usr/libexec/streams46 for later use.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target might require root privilege. Tests requiring root privilege will be skipped when run as a regular user. Tests requiring regular account privileges will be skipped when run as root.

retest
To complement the ‘installcheck’ target above, all OpenSS7 Project packages provide the ‘retest’ target as a means to rerun failed conformance test suite test cases. The ‘retest’ target is provided because some test cases in the test suites have delicate timing considerations that allow them to fail sporadically. Invoking this target will retest the failed cases until no cases that are not expected failures remain.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. As with ‘installcheck’, this target might require root privilege. Tests requiring root privilege will be skipped when run as a regular user. Tests requiring regular account privileges will be skipped when run as root.

uninstall
This target will reverse the steps taken to install the package. This target also performs pre- and post- erase scripts used by packaging tools such as rpm or dpkg. You need to have a configured build directory from which to execute this target, however, you do not need to have compiled any of the files in that build directory.47

The ‘uninstall’ target unfortunately removes add-on packages in the same order in which they were installed. This is not good for the OpenSS7 Master Package, where the ‘remove’ target should be used instead.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target requires root privilege.

remove
This target is like ‘uninstall’ with the exception that it removes add-on packages in the reverse order that installation was performed.48

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target requires root privilege.

8.8.1.2 Maintainer Targets

The following targets are targets intended for use by maintainers of the package, or those responsible for release and packaging of a derivative work of the package. Some of these targets are only effective when maintainer mode has been invoked (--enable-maintainer-mode specified to configure.)

dist
Creates a distribution package (tarball) in the top level build directory. OpenSS7 Project packages distribute two archives: a ‘gzip tar’ archive and a ‘bzip tar’ archive. These archives will have the name streams-0.9.2.4.tar.gz and streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

distcheck
This target is intended for use when releasing the package. It creates the tar(1) archives above and then unpacks the tarball in a source directory, configures in a separate build directory, compiles the package, installs the package in a separate install directory, tests the install package to ensure that some components work, and, finally, uses the unpacked source tree to build another tarball. If you have added or removed files from the package, this is a good way to ensure that everything is still stable for release.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

8.8.1.3 Clean Targets
mostlyclean
Cleans out most of the files from the compile stage. This target is helpful if you have not enabled dependency tracking and need to recompile with changes.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

clean
Cleans all the files from the build directory generated during the ‘make [all]’ phase. It does not, however, remove files from the directory left there from the configure run. Use the ‘distclean’ target to remove those too.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target might require root privilege if the ‘installcheck’ target or the testsuite was invoked with root privilege (leaving files belonging to root).

distclean
This target cleans out the directories left behind by ‘distcheck’ and removes all the configure and generated files from the build directory. This will effectively remove all the files in the build directory, with the except of files that belong to you or some other process.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target might require root privilege if the ‘installcheck’ target or the testsuite was invoked with root privilege (leaving files belonging to root).

maintainer-clean
This target not only removes files from the build directory, it removes generated files from the source directory as well. Care should be taken when invoking this target, because it removes files generated by the maintainer and distributed with the archive that might require special tools to regenerate. These special tools might only be available to the maintainer.49 It also means that you probably need a full blown Linux system to rebuild the package. For more information, see Downloading from CVS.

This is a standard GNU automake(1) makefile target. This target might require root privilege if the ‘installcheck’ target or the testsuite was invoked with root privilege (leaving files belonging to root).

check-clean
This target removes log files left behind by the ‘check’ target. By default, the check scripts append to log files in the top level build directory. This target can be used to clean out those log files before the next run.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

8.8.1.4 Manual Page Targets

The following targets are used to build, install and uninstall just the manual pages from the distribution. These targets are good for creating a distribution of just the manual pages. When building atop multiple packages, these targets recurse down through each package.

mans
Build all of the manual pages. This involves performing parameter substitution on manual pages and optionally cooking the manual pages if --with-cooked-manpages was requested during configuration.
install-mans
Installs the manual pages under DESTDIR. Specify DESTDIR to place the manual pages wherever you see fit. If DESTDIR is not specified on the command line, the manual pages will be installed in the normal installation directory.
uninstall-mans
Uninstalls the manual pages from DESTDIR. Specify DESTDIR to indicate where to remove the manual pages from. If DESTDIR is not specified on the command line, the manual pages will be removed from the normal installation directory.

8.8.1.5 Release Targets

The following are targets used to generate complete releases into the package distribution directory. These are good for unattended and NFS builds, which is what I use them for. Also, when building from atop multiple packages, these targets also recurse down through each package.

release
Build all of the things necessary to generate a release. On an rpm(1) system this is the distribution archives, the source rpm, and the architecture dependent and architecture independent binary rpms. All items are placed in the package distribution directory that can be specified with the --with-pkg-distdir=DIR option to configure.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

forced-release
The ‘release’ target will not regenerate any files that already exist in the package distribution directory. This forced target will.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

release-sign
You will be prompted for a password, unless to specify it to make with the GNUPGPASS variable. For unattended or non-interactive builds with signing, you can do that as: ‘make GNUPGPASS=mypasswd release-sign

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

forced-release-sign
The ‘release-sign’ target will not regenerate any files that already exist in the package distribution directory. This forced target will.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

release-clean
This target will remove all distribution files for the current package from the package distribution directory.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

8.8.1.6 Logging Targets

For convenience, to log the output of a number of targets to a file, log targets are defined. The log file itself is used as the target to make, but make invokes the target minus a .log suffix. So, for example, to log the results of target ‘foo’, invoke the target ‘foo.log’. The only target that this does not apply to is ‘compile.log’. When you invoke the target ‘compile.log’ a simple automake(1) is invoked and logged to the file compile.log. The ‘foo.log’ rule applies to all other targets. This does not work for all targets, just a selected few.50 Following are the logging targets:

Common Logging Targets

Common logging targets correspond to normal user automake(1) makefile targets as follows:

compile.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, but it invokes the standard GNU automake(1) makefile target ‘[all]’.
check.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, but it invokes the standard GNU automake(1) makefile target ‘check’.
install.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, but it invokes the standard GNU automake(1) makefile target ‘install’.
installcheck.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, but it invokes the standard GNU automake(1) makefile target ‘installcheck’.
uninstall.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, but it invokes the standard GNU automake(1) makefile target ‘uninstall’.
remove.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, that invokes the OpenSS7 Projectremove’ target.
Maintainer Logging Targets

Maintainer logging targets correspond to maintainer mode automake(1) makefile targets as follows:

dist.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, but it invokes the standard GNU automake(1) makefile target ‘dist’.
distcheck.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, but it invokes the standard GNU automake(1) makefile target ‘distcheck’.
srpm.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, that invokes the OpenSS7 Projectsrpm’ target.
rebuild.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, that invokes the OpenSS7 Projectrebuild’ target.
resign.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, that invokes the OpenSS7 Projectresign’ target.
release.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, that invokes the OpenSS7 Projectrelease’ target.
release-sign.log
This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target, that invokes the OpenSS7 Projectrelease-sign’ target.

If you want to add one, simply add it to LOGGING_TARGETS in Makefile.am.

8.8.1.7 Problem Report Targets

To ease problem report generation, all logging targets will automatically generate a problem report suitable for mailing in the file target.pr for target ‘target.log’. This problem report file is in the form of an email and can be sent using the included send-pr script or by invoking the ‘send-pr’ makefile target.

There are two additional problem report targets:

pr
The ‘pr’ target is for independently generating a problem report outside of the build or installation process. The target will automatically generate a problem report skeleton suitable for editing and mailing in the file problem.pr. This problem report file is in the form of an email and can be edited and sent directly, or sent using the included send-pr script or by invoking the ‘send-pr’ target.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

send-pr
The ‘send-pr’ target is for finalizing and mailing a problem report generated either inside or outside the build and installation process. The target will automatically finalize and mail the problem.pr problem report if it has changed since the last time that ‘send-pr’ was invoked.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege (unless the problem report file was generated as root).

8.8.1.8 Release Archive Targets

The following targets are used to generate and clean distribution archive and signature files. Whereas the ‘dist’ target affects archives in the top build directory, the ‘release-archive’ targets affects archives in the package distribution directory (either the top build directory or that specified with --with-pkg-distdir=DIR to configure).

You can change the directory to which packages are distributed by using the --with-pkg-distdir=DIR option to configure. The default directory is the top build directory.

release-archives
This target creates the distribution archive files if they have not already been created. This not only runs the ‘dist’ target, but also copies the files to the distribution directory, which, by default is the top build directory.

The files generated are named:

streams-0.9.2.4.tar.gz and streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

You can change this distribution directory with the --with-pkg-distdir option to configure. See ‘./configure --help’ for more details on options.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

release-sign-archives
This target is like ‘release-archives’, except that it also signs the archives using a GPG detached signature. You will be prompted for a password unless you pass the GNUPGPASS variable to make. For automated or unattended builds, pass the GNUPGPASS variable like so:

make GNUPGPASS=mypasswd release-sign-archives

Signature files will be named:

streams-0.9.2.4.tar.gz.asc and streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2.asc

These files will be moved to the package distribution directory with the plain text archives.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

release-clean-archives
This target will clean the release archives and signature files from the package distribution directory.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

8.8.1.9 RPM Build Targets

On rpm(1) systems, or systems sporting rpm packaging tools, the following targets are used to generate rpm(1) release packages. The epoch and release number can be controlled by the contents of the .rpmepoch and .rpmrelease files, or with the --with-rpm-epoch=EPOCH and --with-rpm-release=RELEASE options to configure. See ‘configure --help’ for more information on options. We always use release number ‘1’. You can use release numbers above ‘1’.

srpm
This target generates the source rpm for the package (without signing the source rpm). The source rpm will be named: streams-0.9.2.4-1.srpm.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

rpms
This target is responsible for generating all of the package binary rpms for the architecture. The binary rpms will be named:

streams-*-0.9.2.4-1.*.rpm

where the stars indicate the subpackage and the architecture. Both the architecture specific subpackages (binary objects) and the architecture independent (.noarch) subpackages will be built unless the the former was disabled with the option --disable-arch, or the later with the option --disable-indep, passed to configure.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

sign
srpm-sign
These two targets are the same. When invoked, they will add a signature to the source rpm file, provided that the file does not already have a signature. You will be prompted for a password if a signature is required. Automated or unattended builds can be achieved by using the emake expect script, included in ${srcdir}/scripts/emake.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

rebuild
This target accepts searches out a list of kernel names from the ${DESTDIR}/lib/modules directory and builds rpms for those kernels and for each of a set of architectures given in the AM_RPMTARGETS variable to make. This is convenience target for building a group of rpms on a given build machine.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

resign
This target will search out and sign, with a GPG signature, the source rpm, and all of the binary rpms for this package that can be found in the package distribution directory. This target will prompt for a GPG password. Automated or unattended builds can be achieved with the emake expect script located here: ${srcdir}/scripts/emake.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

8.8.1.10 Debian Build Targets

On Debian systems, or systems sporting Debian packaging tools, the following targets are used to generate Debian release packages. The release number can be controlled by the contents of the .debrelease file, or with the --with-debrelease=RELEASENUMBER option to configure. See ‘configure --help’ for more information on options.

dsc
This target will build the Debian source change package (.dsc file). We use release number ‘0’ so that the entire tarball is included in the dsc file. You can use release number ‘1’ for the same purposes. Release numbers above ‘1’ will not include the entire tarball. The .dsc file will be named: streams_0.9.2.4-0.dsc.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

sigs
This target signs the .deb files. You will be prompted for a password, unless to specify it to make with the GNUPGPASS variable.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

debs
This target will build the Debian binary package (.deb file) from the .dsc created above. (This target will also create the .dsc if it has not been created already.) The subpackage .deb files will be named: streams-*_0.9.2.4-0_*.deb, where the stars indicate the subpackage and the architecture.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

csig
This target signs the .dsc file. You will be prompted for a password, unless to specify it to make with the GNUPGPASS variable.

This is an OpenSS7 Project specific makefile target. This target does not require root privilege.

8.8.1.11 Documentation Targets

On systems that have doxygen(1) documentation tool, the following targets are used to generate doxygen html documentation:

doxy
This target generates doxygen(1) documetnation from suitably marked sources. File containing the necessary documentation marks are discovered automatically by configure. Doxygen documentation can be generated bus is not distributed. Documentation is cerated in the subdirectory doc/html.

9 Troubleshooting

9.1 Test Suites

9.1.1 Pre-installation Checks

Most OpenSS7 packages, including the Linux Fast-STREAMS package, ship with pre-installation checks integral to the build system. Pre-installation checks include check scripts that are shipped in the scripts subdirectory as well as specialized make targets that perform the checks.

When building and installing the package from RPM or DEB source packages (see Building from the Source RPM; and Building from the Debian DSC), a fundamental set of post-compile, pre-installation checks are performed prior to building binary packages. This is performed automatically and does not require any special actions on the part of the user creating binary packages from source packages.

When building and installing the package from tarball (see Building from the Tar Ball; and Installing the Tar Ball), however, pre-installation checks are only performed if specifically invoked by the builder of the package. Pre-installation checks are invoked after building the package and before installing the package. Pre-installation checks are performed by invoking the ‘check’ or ‘check.log’ target to make when building the package, as shown in testsuite:ex0.

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % pushd streams-0.9.2.4
     % ./configure
     % make
     % make check  # <------- invoke pre-installation checks
     % popd

Example 9.1: Invoking Pre-Installation Checks

Pre-installation checks fall into two categories: System Checks and Maintenance Checks.

9.1.1.1 Pre-Installation System Checks

System Checks are post-compilation checks that can be performed before installing the package that check to ensure that the compiled objects function and will be successfully installed. When the --enable-maintainer-mode option has not been passed to configure, only System Checks will be performed.

For example, the steps shown in testsuite:ex1 will perform System checks.

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % pushd streams-0.9.2.4
     % ./configure
     % make
     % make check  # <------ invokes System pre-installation checks
     % popd

Example 9.2: Invoking System Checks

9.1.1.2 Pre-Installation Maintenance Checks

Maintenance Checks include all System Checks, but also checks to ensure that the kernel modules, applications programs, header files, development tools, test programs, documentation, and manual pages conform to OpenSS7 standards. When the --enable-maintainer-mode option has been passed to configure, Maintenance Checks will be performed.

For example, the steps shown in testsuite:ex2 will perform Maintenance checks.

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % pushd streams-0.9.2.4
     % ./configure --enable-maintainer-mode
     % make
     % make check  # <------ invokes Maintenance pre-installation checks
     % popd

Example 9.3: Invoking Maintenance Checks

9.1.1.3 Specific Pre-Installation Checks

A number of check scripts are provided in the scripts subdirectory of the distribution that perform both System and Maintenance checks. These are as follows:

check_commands
This check performs both System and Maintenance checks.

When performing System tests, the following tests are performed:

Unless cross-compiling, or unless a program is included in AM_INSTALLCHECK_STD_OPTIONS_EXEMPT every program in bin_PROGRAMS, sbin_PROGRAMS, and libexec_PROGRAMS is tested to ensure that the --help, --version, and --copying options are accepted. When cross-compiling is is not possible to execute cross-compiled binaries, and these checks are skipped in that case.

Script executables, on the other hand, can be executed on the build host, so, unless listed in AM_INSTALLCHECK_STD_OPTIONS_EXEMPT, every program in dist_bit_SCRIPTS, dist_sbin_SCRIPTS, and pkglibexec_SCRIPTS are tested to ensure that the --help, --version, and --copying options are accepted.

When performing Maintenance tests, check_commands also checks to ensure that a manual page exists in section 1 for every executable binary or script that will be installed from bin_PROGRAMS and dist_bin_SCRIPTS. It also checks to ensure that a manual page exists in section 8 for every executable binary or script that will be installed from sbin_PROGRAMS, dist_sbin_SCRIPTS, libexec_PROGRAMS, and pkglibexec_SCRIPTS.

check_decls
This check only performs Maintenance checks.

It collects the results from the check_libs, check_modules and check_headers check scripts and tests to ensure every declaration of a function prototype or external variable contained in installed header files has a corresponding exported symbol from either a to be installed shared object library or a to be installed kernel module. Declarations are exempted from this requirement if their identifiers have been explicitly added to the EXPOSED_SYMBOL variable. If WARN_EXCESS is set to ‘yes’, then the check script will only warn when excess declarations exist (without a corresponding exported symbol); otherwise, the check script will generate an error and the check will fail.

check_headers
This check only performs Maintenance checks.

When performing Maintenance tests, it identifies all of the declarations included in to be installed header files. It then checks to ensure that a manual page exists in sections 2, 3, 7 or 9, as appropriate, for the type of declaration. It also checks to see if a manual page source file exists in the source directory for a declaration that has not been included in the distribution. Function or prototype declarations that do not have a manual page in sections 2, 3, or 9 will cause the check to fail. Other declarations (‘variable’, ‘externvar’, ‘macro’, ‘enumerate’, ‘enum’, ‘struct’, ‘union’, ‘typedef’, ‘member’, etc.) will only warn if a manual page does not exist, but will not fail the check.

check_libs
This check only performs Maintenance checks.

When performing Maintenance tests, it checks that each exported symbol in each to be installed shared object library has a manual page in section 3. It also checks that each exported symbol has a ‘function’, ‘prototype’ or ‘externvar’ declaration in the to be installed header files. A missing declaration or manual page will cause this check to fail.

check_mans
This check only performs Maintenance checks.

When performing Maintenance tests, it checks that to be install manual pages can be formatted for display without any errors or warnings from the build host man program. It also checks that required headings exist for manual pages according to the section in which the manual page will be installed. It warns if recommended headings are not included in the manual pages. Because some RPM distributions have manual pages that might conflict with the package manual pages, this check script also checks for conflicts with installed manual pages on the build host. This check script also checks to ensure that all to be installed manual pages are used in some fashion, that is, they have a declaration, or exported symbol, or are the name of a kernel module or STREAMS module or driver, possibly capitalized.

Note that checking for conflicts with the build host should probably be included in the System checks (because System checks are performed before the source RPM %install scriptlet).

check_modules
This check performs both System and Maintenance checks.

When performing System tests, it checks each to be installed kernel module to ensure that all undefined symbols can be resolved to either the kernel or another module. It also checks whether an exported or externally declared symbol conflicts with an exported or externally declared symbol present in the kernel or another module.51

When performing Maintenance tests, this check script tests that each to be installed kernel module has a manual page in section 9 and that each exported symbol that does not begin with an underscore, and that belongs to an exported function or exported variable, has a manual page in section 9. It also checks to ensure that each exported symbol that does not begin with an underscore, and that belongs to an exported function or exported variable, has a ‘function’, ‘prototype’ or ‘externvar’ declaration in the to be installed header files.

check_streams
This check performs only Maintenance checks.

When performing Maintenance tests, it checks that for each configured STREAMS module or driver, or device node, that a manual page exists in section 4 or section 7 as appropriate.

The output of the pre-installation tests are fairly self explanatory. Each check script saves some output to name.log, where name is the name of the check script as listed above. A summary of the results of the test are display to standard output and can also be captured to the check.log file if the ‘check.log’ target is used instead of the ‘check’ target to make.

Because the check scripts proliferate name.log files throughout the build directory, a ‘make check-cleanmake target has be provided to clean them out. ‘make check-clean’ should be run before each successive run of ‘make check’.

9.1.2 Post-installation Checks

Most OpenSS7 packages ship with a compatibility and conformance test suite built using the ‘autotest’ capabilities of ‘autoconf’. These test suites act as a wrapper for the compatibility and conformance test programs that are shipped with the package.

Unlike the pre-installation checks, the post-installation checks are always run complete. The only check that post-installation test scripts perform is to test whether they have been invoked with root privileges or not. When invoked as root, or as a plain user, some tests might be skipped that require root privileges, or that require plain user privileges, to complete successfully.

9.1.2.1 Running Test Suites

There are several ways of invoking the conformance test suites:

  1. The test suites can be run after installation of the package by invoking the ‘make installcheck’ or ‘make installcheck.log’ target. Some packages require that root privileges be acquired before invoking the package.
  2. The test suites can be run from the distribution subdirectory after installation of the package by invoking the testsuite shell script directly.
  3. The test suites can be run standalone from the libexec (/usr/libexec) installation directory by invoking the testsuite shell script directly.

Typical steps for invoking the test suites directly from make are shown in testsuite:ex3.

     % wget http://www.openss7.org/streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % tar -xjvf streams-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     % pushd streams-0.9.2.4
     % ./configure
     % make
     % make check  # <------ invokes System pre-installation checks
     % make install
     % sudo make installcheck # <------- invokes post-installation tests
     % popd

Example 9.4: Invoking System Checks

When performing post-installation checks for the purposes of generating a problem report, the checks should always be performed from the build directory, either with ‘make installcheck’ or by invoking testsuite directly from the tests subdirectory of the build directory. This ensures that all of the information known to configure and pertinent to the configuration of the system for which a test case failed, will be collected in the resulting testsuite.log file deposited upon test suite failure in the tests directory. This testsuite.log file can then be attached as part of the problem report and provides rich details to maintainers of the package. See also See Problem Reports, below.

Typical steps for invoking and installed testsuite standalone are shown in testsuite:ex4.

     % [sudo] /usr/libexec/streams/testsuite

Example 9.5: Invoking testsuite Directly

When invoked directly, testsuite will generate a testsuite.log file in the current directory, and a testsuite.dir directory of failed tests cases and debugging scripts. For generating a problem report for failed test cases, see Stand Alone Problem Reports.

9.2 Problem Reports

9.2.1 Problem Report Guidelines

Problem reports in the following categories should include a log file as indicated in the table below:

./configure
A problem with the configuration process occurs that causes the ‘./configure’ command to fail. The problem report must include the config.log file that was generated by configure.
make compile.log
A problem with the build process occurs that causes the ‘make’ command to fail. Perform ‘make clean’ and then ‘make compile.log’ and attach the config.log and compile.log files to the problem report.
make check.log
A problem occurs with the ‘make check’ target that causes it to fail. Perform ‘make check-clean check.log’ and attach the config.log, compile.log and check.log files to the problem report.
sudo make install.log
A problem occurs with ‘sudo make install’ that causes it to fail. Perform ‘sudo make uninstall’ and ‘sudo make install.log’ and attach the config.log, compile.log, check.log, and install.log files to the problem report.
[sudo] make installcheck.log
A problem occurs with the ‘make installcheck’ target that causes the test suite to fail. Attach the resulting tests/testsuite.log and installcheck.log file to the problem report. There is no need to attach the other files as they are included in tests/testsuite.log.
[sudo] make uninstall.log
A problem occurs with the ‘make uninstall’ target that causes the test suite to fail. Perform ‘sudo make uninstall.log’ and attach the config.log, compile.log, check.log, install.log, installcheck.log, tests/testsuite.log and uninstall.log file to the problem report.
[sudo] make remove.log
A problem occurs with the ‘make remove’ target that causes the test suite to fail. Perform ‘sudo make remove.log’ and attach the config.log, compile.log, check.log, install.log, installcheck.log, tests/testsuite.log and remove.log file to the problem report.

For other problems that occur during the use of the Linux Fast-STREAMS package, please write a test case for the test suite that recreates the problem if one does not yet exist and provide a test program patch with the problem report. Also include whatever log files are generated by the kernel (cmn_err(9)) or by the strerr(8) or strace(1) facilities (strlog(9)).

9.2.2 Generating Problem Reports

The OpenSS7 Project uses the GNU GNATS system for problem reporting. Although the ‘send-pr’ tool from the GNU GNATS package can be used for bug reporting to the project's GNATS database using electronic mail, it is not always convenient to download and install the GNATS system to gain access to the ‘send-pr’ tool.

Therefore, the Linux Fast-STREAMS package provides the ‘send-pr’ shell script that can be used for problem reporting. The ‘send-pr’ shell script can invoked directly and is a work-alike for the GNUsend-pr’ tool.

The ‘send-pr’ tool takes the same flags and can be used in the same fashion, however, whereas ‘send-pr’ is an interactive tool52, ‘send-pr’ is also able to perform batch processing. Whereas ‘send-pr’ takes its field information from local databases or from using the ‘query-pr’ C-language program to query a remote database, the ‘send-pr’ tool has the field database internal to the tool.

Problem reports can be generate using make, See Problem Report Targets. An example of how simple it is to generate a problem report is illustrated in autopr:ex0.

     % make pr
     SEND-PR:
     SEND-PR: send-pr:  send-pr was invoked to generate an external report.  An
     SEND-PR: automated problem report has been created in the file named
     SEND-PR: 'problem.pr' in the current directory.  This problem report can
     SEND-PR: be sent to bugs@openss7.org by calling this script as
     SEND-PR: '/home/brian/os7/scripts/send-pr --file="problem.pr"'.
     SEND-PR:
     SEND-PR: It is possible to edit some of the fields before sending on the
     SEND-PR: problem report.  Please remember that there is NO WARRANTY.  See
     SEND-PR: the file 'COPYING' in the top level directory.
     SEND-PR:
     SEND-PR: Please do not send confidential information to the bug report
     SEND-PR: address.  Inspect the file 'problem.pr' for confidential
     SEND-PR: information before mailing.
     SEND-PR:
     % vim problem.pr  # <--- follow instructions at head of file
     % make send-pr

Example 9.6: Invoking Problem Report Generation

Using the ‘make pr’ target to generate a problem report has the advantages that it will assemble any available *.log files in the build directory and attach them to the problem report.

9.2.3 Automatic Problem Reports

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package also provides a feature for automatic problem report generation that meets the problem report submission guidelines detailed in the preceding sections.

Whenever a logging makefile target (see Logging Targets) is invoked, if the primary target fails, the send-pr shell script is invoked to automatically generate a problem report file suitable for the corresponding target (as described above under see Problem Report Guidelines). An example is shown in autopr:ex1.

     % make compile.log
     ...
     ...
     make[5]: *** [libXNSdrvs_a-ip.o] Error 1
     make[5]: Leaving directory `/u6/buildel4/strxns'
     make[4]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1
     make[4]: Leaving directory `/u6/buildel4/strxns'
     make[3]: *** [all] Error 2
     make[3]: Leaving directory `/u6/buildel4/strxns'
     make[2]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1
     make[2]: Leaving directory `/u6/buildel4'
     make[1]: *** [all] Error 2
     make[1]: Leaving directory `/u6/buildel4'
     SEND-PR:
     SEND-PR: send-pr:  Make target compile.log failed in the compile stage.  An
     SEND-PR: automated problem report has been created in the file named
     SEND-PR: 'problem.pr' in the current directory.  This problem report can
     SEND-PR: be sent to bugs@openss7.org by calling 'make send-pr'.
     SEND-PR:
     SEND-PR: It is possible to edit some of the fields before sending on the
     SEND-PR: problem report.  Please remember that there is NO WARRANTY.  See
     SEND-PR: the file 'COPYING' in the top level directory.
     SEND-PR:
     SEND-PR: Please do not send confidential information to the bug report
     SEND-PR: address.  Inspect the file 'problem.pr' for confidential
     SEND-PR: information before mailing.
     SEND-PR:
     % vim problem.pr  # <--- follow instructions at head of file
     % make send-pr

Example 9.7: Problem Report from Failed Logging Target

9.2.4 Stand Alone Problem Reports

The Linux Fast-STREAMS package installs the send-pr script and its configuration file send-pr.config in ${libexecdir}/streams along with the validation testsuite, see See Test Suites. As with the testsuite, this allows the send-pr script to be used for problem report generation on an installed system that does not have a build directory.

An example of invoking the package testsuite and then generating a problem report for failed cases is shown in autopr:ex2.

     % [sudo] /usr/libexec/streams/testsuite
     % # test cases failed...
     % /usr/libexec/streams/send-pr
     SEND-PR:
     SEND-PR: send-pr:  send-pr was invoked to generate an external report.  An
     SEND-PR: automated problem report has been created in the file named
     SEND-PR: 'problem.pr' in the current directory.  This problem report can
     SEND-PR: be sent to bugs@openss7.org by calling this script as
     SEND-PR: '/usr/libexec/streams/send-pr --file problem.pr'.
     SEND-PR:
     SEND-PR: It is possible to edit some of the fields before sending on the
     SEND-PR: problem report.  Please remember that there is NO WARRANTY.  See
     SEND-PR: the file 'COPYING' in the top level directory.
     SEND-PR:
     SEND-PR: Please do not send confidential information to the bug report
     SEND-PR: address.  Inspect the file 'problem.pr' for confidential
     SEND-PR: information before mailing.
     SEND-PR:
     % vim problem.pr  # <--- follow instructions at head of file
     % /usr/libexec/streams/send-pr --file problem.pr

Example 9.8: Invoking send-pr Directly

The advantage of the approach shown in the example is that the send-pr script is capable of collecting the testsuite.log file and the failed test cases and debugging scripts from the testsuite.dir directory and including them in the problem report, as well as all package pertinent information from the installed send-pr.config.

9.3 Known Problems

The OpenSS7 Project does not ship software with known bugs. All bugs are unknown.

Verified behaviour is that behaviour that has been verified by conformance test suites that are shipped with the Linux Fast-STREAMS package.

Unverified behaviour may contain unknown bugs.

Please remember that there is NO WARRANTY.

See also Bugs, or file BUGS in the release directory.

Licenses

GNU Affero General Public License



The GNU Affero General Public License.
Version 3, 19 November 2007
     Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/
     
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    3. Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or
    4. Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or
    5. Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or
    6. Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.

    All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.

    If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.

    Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.

  9. Termination.

    You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.

  10. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

    You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

  11. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

    Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

    An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

    You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

  12. Patents.

    A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's “contributor version”.

    A contributor's “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.

    Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.

    In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

    If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.

    If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

    A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

    Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  13. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

    If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  14. Remote Network Interaction; Use with the GNU General Public License.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, if you modify the Program, your modified version must prominently offer all users interacting with it remotely through a network (if your version supports such interaction) an opportunity to receive the Corresponding Source of your version by providing access to the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge, through some standard or customary means of facilitating copying of software. This Corresponding Source shall include the Corresponding Source for any work covered by version 3 of the GNU General Public License that is incorporated pursuant to the following paragraph.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the work with which it is combined will remain governed by version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

  15. Revised Versions of this License.

    The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU Affero General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

    Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU Affero General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU Affero General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

    If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU Affero General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

    Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

  16. Disclaimer of Warranty.

    THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  17. Limitation of Liability.

    IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

  18. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

    If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

     one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.
     Copyright (C) year name of author
     
     This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
     your option) any later version.
     
     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
     WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
     Affero General Public License for more details.
     
     You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
     along with this program.  If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If your software can interact with users remotely through a network, you should also make sure that it provides a way for users to get its source. For example, if your program is a web application, its interface could display a “Source” link that leads users to an archive of the code. There are many ways you could offer source, and different solutions will be better for different programs; see section 13 for the specific requirements.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU AGPL, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

GNU General Public License



GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 3, 29 June 2007
     Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/
     
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
     license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble

The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works.

The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program–to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users' and authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions.

Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer can do so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users' freedom to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those products. If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.

Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.

The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS
  1. Definitions.

    “This License” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

    “Copyright” also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.

    “The Program” refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as “you”. “Licensees” and “recipients” may be individuals or organizations.

    To “modify” a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a “modified version” of the earlier work or a work “based on” the earlier work.

    A “covered work” means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program.

    To “propagate” a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well.

    To “convey” a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.

    An interactive user interface displays “Appropriate Legal Notices” to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.

  2. Source Code.

    The “source code” for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. “Object code” means any non-source form of a work.

    A “Standard Interface” means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language.

    The “System Libraries” of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A “Major Component”, in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.

    The “Corresponding Source” for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work.

    The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source.

    The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work.

  3. Basic Permissions.

    All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.

    You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.

    Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary.

  4. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.

    No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures.

    When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.

  5. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

    You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.

    You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.

  6. Conveying Modified Source Versions.

    You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

    1. The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date.
    2. The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to “keep intact all notices”.
    3. You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it.
    4. If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so.

    A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.

  7. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

    You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways:

    1. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange.
    2. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge.
    3. Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b.
    4. Convey the object code by offering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements.
    5. Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d.

    A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work.

    A “User Product” is either (1) a “consumer product”, which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, “normally used” refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product.

    “Installation Information” for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made.

    If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).

    The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network.

    Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying.

  8. Additional Terms.

    “Additional permissions” are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.

    When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

    1. Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or
    2. Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or
    3. Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or
    4. Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or
    5. Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or
    6. Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.

    All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.

    If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.

    Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.

  9. Termination.

    You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.

  10. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

    You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

  11. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

    Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

    An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

    You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

  12. Patents.

    A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's “contributor version”.

    A contributor's “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.

    Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.

    In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

    If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.

    If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

    A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

    Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  13. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

    If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  14. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such.

  15. Revised Versions of this License.

    The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

    Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

    If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

    Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

  16. Disclaimer of Warranty.

    THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  17. Limitation of Liability.

    IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

  18. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

    If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

     one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.
     Copyright (C) year name of author
     
     This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
     your option) any later version.
     
     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
     WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
     General Public License for more details.
     
     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
     along with this program.  If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

     program Copyright (C) year name of author
     This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type ‘show w’.
     This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
     under certain conditions; type ‘show c’ for details.

The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html.

GNU Lesser General Public License



GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 3, 29 June 2007
     Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. http://fsf.org/
     
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
     license document, but changing it is not allowed.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS

This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, supplemented by the additional permissions listed below.

  1. Additional Definitions.

    As used herein, “this License” refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License, and the “GNU GPL” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

    “The Library” refers to a covered work governed by this License, other than an Application or a Combined Work as defined below.

    An “Application” is any work that makes use of an interface provided by the Library, but which is not otherwise based on the Library. Defining a subclass of a class defined by the Library is deemed a mode of using an interface provided by the Library.

    A “Combined Work” is a work produced by combining or linking an Application with the Library. The particular version of the Library with which the Combined Work was made is also called the “Linked Version”.

    The “Minimal Corresponding Source” for a Combined Work means the Corresponding Source for the Combined Work, excluding any source code for portions of the Combined Work that, considered in isolation, are based on the Application, and not on the Linked Version.

    The “Corresponding Application Code” for a Combined Work means the object code and/or source code for the Application, including any data and utility programs needed for reproducing the Combined Work from the Application, but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work.

  2. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL.

    You may convey a covered work under sections 3 and 4 of this License without being bound by section 3 of the GNU GPL.

  3. Conveying Modified Versions.

    If you modify a copy of the Library, and, in your modifications, a facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked), then you may convey a copy of the modified version:

    1. under this License, provided that you make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the event an Application does not supply the function or data, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful, or
    2. under the GNU GPL, with none of the additional permissions of this License applicable to that copy.
  4. Object Code Incorporating Material from Library Header Files.

    The object code form of an Application may incorporate material from a header file that is part of the Library. You may convey such object code under terms of your choice, provided that, if the incorporated material is not limited to numerical parameters, data structure layouts and accessors, or small macros, inline functions and templates (ten or fewer lines in length), you do both of the following:

    1. Give prominent notice with each copy of the object code that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License.
    2. Accompany the object code with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license document.
  5. Combined Works.

    You may convey a Combined Work under terms of your choice that, taken together, effectively do not restrict modification of the portions of the Library contained in the Combined Work and reverse engineering for debugging such modifications, if you also do each of the following:

    1. Give prominent notice with each copy of the Combined Work that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License.
    2. Accompany the Combined Work with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license document.
    3. For a Combined Work that displays copyright notices during execution, include the copyright notice for the Library among these notices, as well as a reference directing the user to the copies of the GNU GPL and this license document.
    4. Do one of the following:
      1. Convey the Minimal Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, and the Corresponding Application Code in a form suitable for, and under terms that permit, the user to recombine or relink the Application with a modified version of the Linked Version to produce a modified Combined Work, in the manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL for conveying Corresponding Source.
      2. Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the Library. A suitable mechanism is one that (a) uses at run time a copy of the Library already present on the user's computer system, and (b) will operate properly with a modified version of the Library that is interface-compatible with the Linked Version.
    5. Provide Installation Information, but only if you would otherwise be required to provide such information under section 6 of the GNU GPL, and only to the extent that such information is necessary to install and execute a modified version of the Combined Work produced by recombining or relinking the Application with a modified version of the Linked Version. (If you use option 4d0, the Installation Information must accompany the Minimal Corresponding Source and Corresponding Application Code. If you use option 4d1, you must provide the Installation Information in the manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL for conveying Corresponding Source.)
  6. Combined Libraries.

    You may place library facilities that are a work based on the Library side by side in a single library together with other library facilities that are not Applications and are not covered by this License, and convey such a combined library under terms of your choice, if you do both of the following:

    1. Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based on the Library, uncombined with any other library facilities, conveyed under the terms of this License.
    2. Give prominent notice with the combined library that part of it is a work based on the Library, and explaining where to find the accompanying uncombined form of the same work.
  7. Revised Versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License.

    The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

    Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Library as you received it specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU Lesser General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that published version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library as you received it does not specify a version number of the GNU Lesser General Public License, you may choose any version of the GNU Lesser General Public License ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

    If the Library as you received it specifies that a proxy can decide whether future versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License shall apply, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of any version is permanent authorization for you to choose that version for the Library.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

GNU Free Documentation License



GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE
Version 1.1, March 2000
     Copyright © 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA
     
     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

    This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ascii without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

    If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section entitled “History”, and its title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. In any section entitled “Acknowledgments” or “Dedications”, preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgments and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section as “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections entitled “Acknowledgments”, and any sections entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections entitled “Endorsements.”

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation. Such a compilation is called an “aggregate”, and this License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original English version of this License, the original English version will prevail.

  9. TERMINATION

    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

  10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  year  your name.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the
       Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list.
       A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

If you have no Invariant Sections, write “with no Invariant Sections” instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write “no Front-Cover Texts” instead of “Front-Cover Texts being list”; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

Indices

Index of Concepts

Index of Data Types

Index of Functions and Macros

Index of Variables and Constants

Index of Files and Programs

Index of Configuration Options

Index of Makefile Targets

Index of Authors

Index of Manual Pages Referenced

Table of Contents


Footnotes

[1] Formerly X/Open and UNIX International.

[2] See GNU/Linux Distributions, for more information.

[3] If you are using a Debian release, please make sure to install the groff extension package (‘groff_ext’), as it contains the refer or grefer commands necessary for including references in the manual pages.

[4] A wide range of net-snmp releases are supported, from UCD-SNMP 4.2.5 through net-snmp 5.4.

[5] Please see Problem Reports, or the file PROBLEMS in the release directory for more information on filing a proper Problem Report.

[6] "A Stream Input-Output System", AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal 63, No. 8 Part 2 (October, 1984), pp. 1897-1910.

[7] The kernel version, 2.4.20-28.7 is just an example. When installed with a ‘.ko’ extension, dashes (‘-’) are also changed to underscores (‘_’).

[8] Note that documentation for STREAMS drivers is in the form of manual pages in Section 4 of the manual pages with the same name as the driver.

[9] Note that documentation for STREAMS modules is in the form of a manual page in Section 4 of the manual pages with the same name as the module.

[10] These warnings are generated when linking only against the libc library that includes only failing stubs for getpmsg(2) and putpmsg(2)

[11] The kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. For the running kernel, use the output of ‘uname -r’.

[12] Previously the STREAMS Compatibility modules were part of the Linux Fast-STREAMS base package. They were separated to an add-on package for a number of reasons that are described in the OpenSS7 STREAMS Compatibility – Installation and Reference Manual.

[13] Because binary compatibility is a thorny issue, both from the standpoint of technical merit and licensing issues, the strbcm package is only currently available to subscribers and sponsors of the OpenSS7 Project.

[14] See the ‘--enable-streams-bcm’ option to configure in Configure Options.

[15] The compatibility package also provides a version of the strsun.h header file and the helper functions provided there.

[16] Note that Solaris also provides versions of the Mentat functions which appear in the Solaris compatiblity module.

[17] One of the major deficiencies of the deprecated LiS implemntation was its inability to conform to the standards imposed on the user interface and behaviour of the Stream head.

[18] See GNU/Linux Distributions, for more information.

[19] If you are using a Debian release, please make sure to install the groff extension package (‘groff_ext’), as it contains the refer or grefer commands necessary for including references in the manual pages.

[20] A wide range of net-snmp releases are supported, from UCD-SNMP 4.2.5 through net-snmp 5.4.

[21] Items marked as ‘TBD’ are scheduled to have support deprecated. That is, in a future release, the distributions marked ‘TBD’ will not longer be validated before release.

[22] At a later date, it is possible to move this package into the kernel, however, with continued resistance to STREAMS from within the Linux developer community, this is currently unlikely.

[23] See sections Disclaimer of Warranty and Limitation of Liability under GNU Affero General Public License.

[24] Not all distributions support the ‘%dev’ RPM macro: a case in point is the SuSE 8.0 distribution which uses an older version of rpm(1). Distributions that do not support the ‘